The imperial core was the basis on which a new ceremoniał system
was gradually created. The imperial genesis of rules observed at the pa-
pai court and, conseąuently, of ceremoniał mechanisms resulted in
a wide reception in episcopal residences of architectonic Solutions offered
by imperial seats. In Romę, architectonic references to imperial models
did not require a rebuilding of the episcopal residence, sińce the pope's
first Roman seats were former residences of the imperial family.^
The seat of the bishop of Romę was originally modest, and the prin-
ciples of its functioning were defined by utilitarian customary norms. As
in the other residences of that time, the key position in the papai resi-
dence was occupied by the tricliniumd'3 Since ceremoniał did not permit
the presentation of the bishop of Romę as an ordinary human being, it
was not applied in the private area except tor the dining room.?4 The
smali size of the early residences did not allow filling them with exten-
sive representation functions.
The necessity to introduce into residences rooms designed for repre-
sentation and hence to introduce ceremoniał became morę intense at the
tum of the 6^ century. The bishop of Rome's residences as well as other
episcopal seats were then transformed into residences in which one im-
portant room was the big stately audience hall (cmJa), accessible directly
from the courtyard. This solution was adopted at Gothic courts as well.
From the surviving descriptions it appears that the hall included
a throne place, separated by an apse or barrier, on the sides of which,
during ceremoniał audiences, stood the ofhcial guardd^ In certain Solu-
tions of the episcopal residence, modelled on affluent households, there
were two halls, the second and smaller of which was of a morę private
Gradually, the following arrangement, clearly originating from Ro-
man models, was established within papai residences: the tm/n, the con-
sistorm77T, the bhc/buMm, and the The division of accessibil-
ity was planned accordingly. The aula and consistory belonged to the
public zonę, whereas the triclinium and chambers were situated in
the private segment. Separate buildings, linked by passages or porticoes,
72 These were the so-called Mrbcniae. Mielsch, op. cit (cf. the notę 38), p. 149
says that towards the end of the empire palatine functions were transferred onto villas.
73 HVP (cf. the notę 9), 1, p. 355.
73 Patrizi/Dykmans, op. cit (cf. the notę 12), 1, p. 30.
75 McCormick, Fierzia/ Gchuy (cf. the notę 39), p. 261-299, such audience aulas
were built e.g. by Vandais in Carthage, probably in the late 5^ century in the reign of
king Guntamund; in the Ostrogothic Ravenna in the reign of Theodoric the Great in the
late 5^ century, and in the Visigothic Toulouse as early as in the reign of Theodoric II