Egypt Exploration Fund [Hrsg.]
Archaeological report: comprising the work of the Egypt Exploration Fund and the progress of egyptology during the year ... — 1900-1901

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Pkogeess of Egyptology.

to the west, and an Old Empire jar to the south. At the feet was a large
saucer of fine red polished ware. The saucer was inverted, and a small
black stone and flint flake were placed at its side. Immediately under
this interment was another, consisting of a skull and„fragments of a
skeleton disposed as in the case of the upper burial, and resting on a brick
floor. The two interments were separated by an Old Empire terra-cotta
dish of offerings and a ring of jars with the points turned towards the

" Altogether sixteen graves were examined. In some the bones of the
skeleton were almost wholly, if not altogether, wanting; in others, the
greater part of them were preserved and arranged so that the body lay in
a crouched position. Old Empire jars were very numerous and offering-
dishes were not uncommon. In addition, shells, pebbles, flint flakes,
fragments of a terra-cotta coffin, and a broken stone with traces of paint
were also met with, but no beads. The skulls were all dolichocephalic.

" The red polished pottery belongs to the end of the Illrd or the begin-
ning of the IVth Dynasty, and so fixes the date of the cemetery. The great
wall of enceinte is built on the narrow strip of ground that intervenes
between its northern boundary wall, or rather curb, and the street of
mastabas opened by Mr. Quibell four years ago. Whether the curb or the
great wall was the first built it is impossible to say without further
excavation. But the curb, like those which surround the graves, shows
no signs of weathering, and the cemetery must consequently have been
covered by the sand very shortly after its completion. As the accumulation
of sand is due to the great wall, which has prevented it from being blown
further to the north, it would seem that no great interval of time could
have elapsed between the completion of the cemetery and that of the

" Several fragments of granite are scattered on the surface of the sand
which have come from some building in the immediate neighbourhood.
Some of them were found four years ago by Mr. Quibell, built into a crude-
brick structure in the N.-E. corner of the enceinte. On one of them we
discovered the name of Kha-sekhemui, who must therefore have erected a
granite monument close to the spot where we were digging, and may
possibly have been the builder of the great wall.

" While I was at Elephantine the fellahin found an Aramaic papyrus
along with a couple of ostraca, which turn out to relate to loans of money,
contracted by members of a Jewish community settled at the time at
Elephantine or Assuan. As the documents belong to the Persian epoch,
the fact that Jews had already established themselves so far to the south
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