Egypt Exploration Fund [Hrsg.]
Archaeological report: comprising the work of the Egypt Exploration Fund and the progress of egyptology during the year ... — 1900-1901

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Archaeology, Hieroglyphic Studies, Etc.


Kingdom as lasting from the earliest historic times to the Vth Dynasty,
and he finds that up to the end of that time copper, not bronze, was used.
The copper vessels are almost entirely of hammered work, sometimes
beaten into shape from within, but generally from without on to a mould
or core, which was probably of wood. Some accessory parts of a vessel,
such as the spout, were cast and attached by applying at the junction thin
plates of the metal—probably when heated—and welding all together with
the help of a blow-pipe. One part of a vase was sometimes rivetted to
another, as, for example, the base to the sides. The rivets were put in
close together, and the heads hammered out broad and thin on the inside.
The commonest examples of Old Kingdom copper vessels that have come
down to us are the set of bowl and ewer; in the oldest instances of the
latter the spout is double-channeled, so that two streams of water were
poured out at the same time. After the Yth Dynasty, in what von Bissing
calls the Middle Kingdom, bronze came gradually into use, though copper
was still preferred; vessels were then occasionally cast in one piece. As
bronze predominated over copper, hammered work was more and more dis-
placed by cast work. From the Vlth Dynasty onward, surfaces were often
decorated with inscriptions or with incised ornamentation. A form of
lamp hitherto unknown to us, in which scented fat was burned with a
wick, was found at Dahshur and El Bersheh. It is made of a small bowl
pegged into a saucer and provided with an extinguisher. From the recent
finds at El Bersheh also come vases of types well known as hieroglyphs.
The introduction proceeds to deal with the beautiful decorative metal vases
of the early New Kingdom, and ends with the often hybrid vessels of the
Graeco-Boman period.


A very sad event in the history of this year's work in Egypt is the
death of Mr. Anthony Wilkin, who had only just completed his twenty-
third year. Mr. Wilkin, who was educated at Harrow and at King's
College, Cambridge, first visited Egypt as a tourist four or five years ago,
after which he published a brightly-written volume entitled " On the
Nile." In the season of 1900 he revisited the country with more
serious aims, and spent several weeks in Professor Petrie's camp at
Abydos, where he wished especially to study the methods of excavating
and to acquire some first-hand knowledge of archaeology.

The interval had been very eventful in his life history. Not only had
he completed his career at Cambridge, but, while still an undergraduate,
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