Egypt Exploration Fund [Hrsg.]
Archaeological report: comprising the work of the Egypt Exploration Fund and the progress of egyptology during the year ... — 1903-1904

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Christian Egypt.


in a clay, and then against others who abstained from communicating
on Sunday.

As a contribution towards the solution—apparently as distant still as
ever—of the problem as to the origin of the eighth book of the Apostolic
Constitutions, Horxer has published-8 and translated the texts of the
Ethiopia Stnodos and the corresponding Arabic, the latter for the first
time; and has translated, for the first time completely into a European
language, the probable parent of these, the Sa'idic version of the Ecclesi-
astical Canons as edited by Lagarde (Aegyptiaca), besides printing some
fragments from divergent texts of this. The variants from several MSS.
of each version are given in separate collations, and a long introduction
examines, phrase by phrase, their mutual relationships. The whole makes
a volume of some 500 pages.

The longest of the additional Sa'idic fragments given in the work just
described has been simultaneously edited by Leipoldt,29 who terms it an
" extract from the eighth book of the Apostolic Constitutions/' in what he
holds to be an older form of the text than Lagarde's. These two Sa'idic
recensions show us, he thinks, earlier stages in the history of the eventual
text of the eighth book. His work is reviewed by Kraaz.30

Remnants of an early Sa'idic text of the Basilian canons, otherwise
known only in Arabic, have been observed by Crum.31

Leipoldt's Berlin fragments32 contain four homiletic texts : no. 180, an
extract from Amos and one from Shenoute, upon an ostracon; no. 190,
from Severian of Gabala, upon St. Michael; nos. 191, 192, unidentified

Hatjschildt endeavours to show33 that, since the "presbyters," or
village elders, are familiar civil officials in late pagan and early Christian
Egypt, and since in the Didache no such local officials appear to be known,
that work cannot have had its origin in Egypt.

An important contribution towards the history of Egyptian monasticism
might have been noticed last year: the revised edition of Preuschen's
examination of the evidence for connecting the earliest recluses and
solitaries with the pagan kuto^ol or "possessed" of the Memphite
Serapeum.31 He shows that the latter were a guild of privileged beggars,
who had elected to dwell in the temple domain with the object of
obtaining, by " incubation " iu the sanctuary, healing or oracles, either
for themselves or others. They subsisted on fees or charity, and do not
seem to have been in any way obliged to remain in the temple, much less
in ascetic seclusion. Hence Pachomius and the first Christian hermits
cannot legitimately be connected with them.
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