Egypt Exploration Fund [Hrsg.]
Archaeological report: comprising the work of the Egypt Exploration Fund and the progress of egyptology during the year ... — 1908-1909

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Pkogeess of Egyptology.

a circuit of about a mile, and made a considerable clearance of tbe area
between the two temples. This part of the work will be continued next
season, when we hope to complete the plan of the XVIIIth Dynasty town.

" During the season of 1909 we were principally occupied with the
cemeteries. The chief New Empire cemetery we discovered on the
plateau and in the low cliffs immediately outside the north-western
corner of the town wall. One class of tombs, those of the plateau,
conformed pretty closely to the type known in Upper and Lower Egypt at
the same period, i.e. deep shafts at the bottom of which chambers were
hewn out at right angles. The chambers were, however, more numerous
and complex than is usual in Egypt. In the cliff tombs the chambers
were of the same plan, but were approached by a stairway instead of by a

" Similar stairway tombs were found in another low cliff a short
distance south of the first cemetery and due west of the town, and an
isolated pyramidal hill behind these was honeycombed with long galleries
running far into the rock and crowded with numerous burials. With
one or two exceptions all these tombs had been plundered in ancient
times, but they yielded a number of 1 cabinet specimens ' of considerable
interest and value. With the exception of some of the pottery the objects
were all of purely Egyptian character, and the cemeteries may no doubt
be ascribed to the Egyptian colony settled at Behen. Amongst them may
be noted scarabs the names on which comprise the principal kings of the
XVIIIth Dynasty, and one or two of the XlXth and XXth, faience dishes,
necklaces of semi-precious stones, and a fine ivory-handled bronze sword
and bronze dagger. Only two or three inscriptions were found, viz., grave-
stelae of very rough workmanship, and no statues.

"More remunerative and of greater archaeological interest were the
graves of the Xllth Dynasty which were discovered inside the walls of the
town, an evidence that the latter are not as early as the Xllth Dynasty.
They resembled the cliff-graves of the XArIIIth Dynasty in structure, being
large balls with several alcoves approached by a staircase. The brick
superstructures were in some cases perfectly preserved, showing that the
tomb was covered with a quadrilateral building roofed with a barrel-vault,
and that the stairway approach was similarly vaulted. From these tombs
we have as yet obtained no inscriptions except a single decomposed grave-
stela, no statues, and only one statuette. The latter, in steatite, gives the
name of Kary-n-mery, who is dated by a scarab found with him to the
reign of Amenemhat III. His tomb, which was intact, yielded a fine
collection of jewellery. Erom this series of tombs we obtained the earliest
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