Bickham, George [Editor]
The Oeconomy of Arts, Or, A Companion For the Ingenious of Either Sex (Band 1): An Introductive Essay On Drawing: With The Nature and Beauty of Lights and Shadows. And Cuts suitable for the Young Practitioner, In The Manner of the Greatest Masters — London, 1747

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To act otherwise would be prepofterous and irratio-
nal ; it would be like his ventring out upon the wide
Ocean without Helm or Compass to direct him.
When once the Theory os his Art is become samiliar
to him ; when once he knows what Courfe to fleer,
there is no Danger in the Pursuit os his Voyage, and
his safe Arrival at die wish'd for Port.

%be Precepts.
"y O U raust get a Habit os Imitation by srequent
Tryals ; which if it be done with a Pen, take
Care to avoid scratching, and making thin and lean
Strokes, but rather broad ones, drawn from above
downwards; but some of the Hatches muft be sharp,
some broad, some unequal, some equal, according' to
the Shades.
Hold the Pen or Pencil somewhat long (and not fo
upright, as is usual in Writing) as is you laid it ftrait
sorward, and when you draw with Chalks, ufe your
sels to turn them in your Hand, which will hinde's
'their growing blunt fo soon as otherwise they will.
Begin with Eyes, Nofe, Mouth and Ears. In the
Drawing of a Face; form the Circles, or Oval of
the Pace, then make a Stroke down where the Middle
or Tip of the Nofe and Mouth mould be placed ;
which Stroke muft be made ftrait down in a full Face,
but arched or oval in an Oblique, or Side-Face.
For Demonftration, take an Egg or Ivory Box iri
that Shape, mark the Lines with Ink, and it will ex-
plain this Rule in all its Fore-lhortnings, tho' this is
the general Rule of Proportion, yet Nature often
varies, which renders, the Object to be imitated more
remarkable and cafy.
As to the various Paffions exprefs'd in Faces, I
need not treat of them, it being already so well per-
form'd by " the Chevelier Lc Brim. When you are
perfect in Drawing your Ovals, and ean divide them
to all. Portion?, you muft proceed to Hajids and,
- Feet
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