Bickham, George [Editor]
The Oeconomy of Arts, Or, A Companion For the Ingenious of Either Sex (Band 1): An Introductive Essay On Drawing: With The Nature and Beauty of Lights and Shadows. And Cuts suitable for the Young Practitioner, In The Manner of the Greatest Masters — London, 1747

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Feet, Arms and Legs, seperately, besore you attemps
a whole Figure.
For a more easy Method, I should advise you to
hang a small Thread and Plummet before the Figure
you draw by, then make a perpendicular Line on
your Paper, by this means you will more easily let
your Figure upright, or discover the Bending, or the
£>way and Action of it, how every Part answers each
other in a perpendicular Line. Next hold a Ruler
or Pencil, parallel to the several Parts of your Figure,
thereby you will find how the Shoulders, Hip,
Knees and Muscles ansvver each other in a Parallel.
In order to draw the Form of any Beast, begin at
the Forehead with your Coal, first lightly drawing
downward to the Nose, Mouth, upper and nether
Chop, ending the Line at the Throat; then view-
ing it again, where you began ; from the Forehead
over the Head, Ears and Neck, continuing till you
have given the full Compass of the Buttock, thep
mark cut the Legs and Feet ; viewing it again, touch
out the Breast with the Eminency thereos: Lastly,
finish the Tail, Paws, Tongue, Beard and Teeth.
In Birds begin also the Draught at the Head (and
beware of making it too big) then the Breast Line,
srom under the Throat, down to the Legs, there
slay, and begin at the Pinion to make the Wing,
which being joined to the Back-Line, will be pre-
sently sinished. The Eyes, Legs and Tail must be
drawn last, always letting (in Birds as in Beasts) the
sarthest Leg be shorteft.
Insecls, as Flies, Bees, Wasps, Grasshoppers,
Worms and such like are easily drawn; but Nature
is the best Pattern.
To draw a Flower; begin srom the Rose Tust, or
Wart in the middle, as in a Rose or Marygold, which
being made, draw Lines equally divided srom thence
to the greatest Compafs, or Extent os the Flower.
They may be drawn either fully open, or in the ; bm muft be flcctch'd. gently cut, the Leaves
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