Bulletin du Musée National de Varsovie — 9.1968

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0.5
1 cm
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sculptees ou moulćes, se distinguent par une anatomie generale et syntheticrae. L'artiste n'a guere
de connaissanees de structure du corps humain; il n'est conscient que de Paspect de la formę.
Aussi Fanatomie des oeuvres qu'il execute doit-elle avoir ce caractere pressenti, base sur l'impre-
ssion et sensible a la convexite et a la concavite des surfaces, ou encore a la lisibilite des divisions.

Notre objet illustre bien ce trait de Part etrusque. L'artiste s'interesse a la rondeur du crane ou
du menton, a Pallongement uni des joues ou a la convexite des yeux, Ce n'est pas Possature ni le
systeme musculaire cmi decident de la convexite ou de la concavite des surfaces du corps. Ce sont
les elements consitituants convexes ou concaves qui decident de Paspect de la masse. Et c'est ce
genre d'attitude qui garantit justement a maiiites oeuvres posterieures de Part etrusąue leur
spontaneite et leur „impressionnisme" qni decoulent egalement du fait que, la matiere qu'utili-
saient generalement les Etrusques etant facile a faęonner, le processus de creation etait peu
contróle.

En meme temps, par la repetition de solutions devenues banales, le danger de la routine
s'accroit. Precisement a cette epoque, le niveau artistique, assez ćgal au dćbut, s'est considerable-
ment diffćrencie. Notre tete estle resultat de ces habitudes d'associations d'idees, conservatrices et
depourvues de fantaisie, de Partisan. Elle est un de ces objets qui ćtaicnt fabriques en masse dans
les ateliers existant a proximite des grands centres du culte, et etaient vendus aux gens du
peuple. Peu importants en soi, ces objets prenaient une signification par le sacrifice que Pon en
faisait aux Dieux, et de ce fait ils concentraient en eux, suivant les circonstances, les sentiments
de veneration et d'cspoir, de gratitude ou de peur de cette qens quae anie omnes alias magis dedita
religionibus.31

(Traduit par Jolanta Lamy — Grum)

37. Livius, Ab urbe condita, V, 1, 6.

Ewa Birkenmajer

ENGLISH REDWARE FROM THE PERIOD OF
INDUSTRIALIZATION OF STAFFORDSHIRE IN POLISH

COLLECTIONS

Inflow of Englisk ceramics into Poland in appreciable quantities began about the last qiiar-
ter of the XVIII century. The Polish market was captured first by English faience then by jasper-
-ware and black basalt-ware, novelties introduced by Wedgwood. Earlier English ceramics with
an immense rangę of variety had entered Poland only in limited numbers.1 Among these the
more interesting is a rather numerous batch of redware vassels—nnglazed and some covered
^sdth lead glaze — which were collected from various Polish museums and displayed in the Ex-
hibition of British Art, held in the National Museum in Warsaw.2

1. Tliis applied to the whole continent of Europę. English ceramics after about 1750 developed from artisan*s craft to industrial
production. Initialfy it pushed out of market products of European manufacture imported iuto the country, then it began to
be exported to America. It was only in the times of J. Wedgwood tbat the area of export and influences was extended to the
Continent. G. Savage in his article : ,,The Influence of Wedgwood on European Pottcry and Porcelain" {Apollo, LXX, 1959,
pp. 52 —53)has accepted the following periods of domination of influences of ceramics products in Europę: up to 1756— in-
fluence of Meissen ; up to 1774 —influence of Sevres ; then up to 1815—influence of Wedgwood.

2. In 1967 an Exhibition of British Painting from Hogartb to Turner, organized by the British Council, was held at the Natio-
nal Museum in Warsaw. This was supplemented by a display of objects of British art from Polish collcctions which includcd
among other things objects of artistic craft: furniture, clock, silver-ware, ceramics and glass. A souvenir volume of that ex-
hibition, now in the press, contains, a fuli cataloguc of the objects cxhibitcd.

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