Instytut Historii Sztuki <Posen>   [Hrsg.]
Artium Quaestiones — 22.2011

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could constitute particular functional areas. This organisation empha-
sised horizontal communication. The system was subject to minimum
changes. For many centuries the main ceremoniał rooms were situated
on the same storey, namely the raised ground floor.
The appearance of stately rooms resulted from the necessity to
ceremonially regulate the principles of holding audiences. The process
began as early as in the 5^ century and its origin was the bishop's cus-
tomary meeting with the faithful as well as the necessity for his isola-
tion, resulting from the need to emphasise the sacred. As in Roman
ceremoniał, the mechanism of change evolved from the to
acbmssio to The audience became one of the main elements of
papał ceremoniał. The evolution proceeded over several centuries, from
the meeting with the whole congregation to ofhcial audiences to the or-
dered private audience, which was eventually codified at the tum of the
16^ century. Each of these audiences necessitated the introduction into
the pope's residence of separated areas defined by ceremoniał.
In many papai residences there was a tendency to enclose the pro-
cession inside the pałace and to concentrate the main ceremoniał acts in
the residence. From Leo IIFs times onwards the Lateran pałace was be-
ing rebuilt according to conceptions similar to those of Byzantium. Since
the 13^ century, the intrapalatine procession became one of the most
rapidly developing elements of papai ceremoniał. These tendencies coin-
cided with a radical rebuilding of the Vatican pałace at the time of
Nicholas III.
The expanding structure of the papai court was referred to three
spheres: liturgical, official secular, and private. They determined the di-
rection of the papai residence's further evolution. A major part of the
papai suitę consisted of ofhcials called curialists, who possessed distinc-
tions allowing them to take specific positions among the attendants, de-
pending on the current rite or ritual. Some of the distinctions were only
honorary. The system was fully formed in the second half of the 12^ cen-
Another important element of ceremoniał was the association with
the residence of the formal act of attiring the pope in stately robes. This
ritual, which initiated every great ceremoniał or liturgical celebration,
foreshadowed procession with escort. In the Middle Ages it was greatly
extended, and consequently special rooms designed for this ceremony
emerged, namely the so-called Chambers of Vestments (Cnmerne Pnrn-
Simultaneously with these changes, a significant alteration in in-
trapalatine communication occurred. As in Byzantine ceremoniał,
movement in the residence lost its purely functional character. The
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