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Evans, Arthur J.  
The Palace of Minos: a comparative account of the successive stages of the early Cretan civilization as illustred by the discoveries at Knossos (Band 2,1): Fresh lights on origins and external relations — London, 1928

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$45- Evidences of Earthquake Shock at Knossos
of Palace and Overwhelmed Houses.

S.E. Angle

Resumeofformative■influences at Knossos—wide early relations, resulting
in many-sided culture ; Culmination of Civilization in Middle Minoan Age ;
Great Catastrophe about end of M. M. II; Restored splendour checked by
another great overthrozu in M. M. Ill b ; Physical character of this; Earthing
tinder of earlier Store-Rooms, &c.—a vast Intermetit; Getteral indications of
a great Earthquake; Specific evidences of seismic action at S.E. Angle; Its
subsidence due to artificial cavity below ; Its Exploration—rock-hewn pillars
and deep Cove; Early Mine for Red Earth; Investigation of submerged
houses bordering S.E. Angle; ' House of Fallen Blocks'—Effects of Earth-
quake ; M. M. Ill contents ; Basements reached by ladders—a ' Tower Hotcse' ;
Typical Section of M. M. Ill Town ; M. M. II houses below, with fine egg-
shell pottery ; ' House of the Sacrificed Oxen' / Heads of Urus Bulls and
Tripod Altars ; Expiatory sacrifice, before ceremonial filling in ; Rich deposit
of M. M. Ill domestic pottery ; Suspension pots—perhaps for nesting swal-
lows; Egg-stands ; ' Ariadne's Clew-box'; Parts of painted stucco relief of
bull; Terra-cot la relief of youth of ' Cup-bearer ' type ; Earthquake coincides
with mature M. M. Ill b phase, bid not its actual term. Shrinking of Palace

of forma-
tive in-
at Knos-

early re-

The foregoing Sections will have supplied a summary survey of the
various agencies that influenced the growth of Knossos as a centre of
Mediterranean civilization. Already, as we have seen, a populous settlement
from remote Neolithic days, the Great South Road, or whatever more
primitive transit route may have preceded it, had brought it into communica-
tion with the Nile Valley from Late Pre-dynastic times onwards. On the
other hand, through its harbour town similiar relations were progressively
opened up by the close of the Early Minoan Age and throughout the succeed-
ing epoch with Italy and the Maltese Islands, and, thus, indirectly, with the
Iberic and even the Britannic West. At the same time, by way of the coastal
line East, a new direct impulse is now traceable from the Syrian side, bring-
ing with it such tangible proofs of Oriental intercourse as cylinder seals of
the First Babylonian dynasty and stone libation vessels in the shape of bull
' rhytons ' of remote Sumerian ancestry. It has been shown, moreover,
that the early Palace of Mallia, the plan of which gives the first intelligible
idea of the ' proto-palatial' stage at Knossos, was itself largely taken from
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