Court : traditional affinities with Mainland East.
Retrospective observations ; The Site of Knossos ; Position not commanding
like Mycenae, but suitable for primitive needs; Original Neolithic settlement
comparatively low-lying; ' Tell' formed by successive deposits; Neolithic
culture of Crete fundamentally Anatolian, conforming to late Geological
Tradition. The 'great gulf fixed' between the Anatolo-Cretan Neolithic
and that of Mainland Greece with its North-Eastern associations ; Discovery
of late Neolithic Houses beneath Central Court of Palace, 1^2^-2/j. ; Inci-
dental find of coins and pottery from adjoining site of Greek Temple—the
'House of"Rhea'; Two main Late Neolithic layers, a and fi; Transitional
elements in culture; The' Chalice' type and proto-Egyptian copper parallel; Clay
idols; Stone implements and Copper Axe (imported ?) ; Axe amulet; Frag-
ments of variegated stone vessels—evidence of pre-dynastic Egyptian influences ;
Plan of Neolithic houses—the Store Cells; Appearance of fixed hearths ;
Contrast with Minoan usage of movable hearths ; Fixed hearths a Mainland
traaition, inheritance of Continental Climate; Reappearance of Anatolian
type of Central Hearth beyond Aegean ; Movable hearths of the Minoan Age
symptomatic of Southern Influence.
A great earthquake x seems to have laid in ruins a large part of the Retro-
Palace as it existed towards the close of the Third Middle Minoan Period, survey6
Before, however, considering this catastrophic event and the widespread "feded in
activities that mark the beginning: of the New Era it is well to take fresh
a retrospective glance at the central subject of this work in its larger bear- ei
ings, as illustrated by further finds due to supplementary researches. These,
it will be seen, have thrown a new light on the rise of Knossos, to become
the dominating centre of the insular life at the very epoch when Minoan
culture was to win for itself a wider field in what was henceforth to be known
as Mycenaean Greece.
More and more—beginning, as is now made apparent by some remark-
able finds described below, from the latest Neolithic stage—the determining
1 See below, p. 287 seqq.