Evans, Arthur J.
The Palace of Minos: a comparative account of the successive stages of the early Cretan civilization as illustred by the discoveries at Knossos (Band 2,1): Fresh lights on origins and external relations — London, 1928

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§ 34- Impulse from the South—New Lights on Early Nilotic
Connexions : Libyan and Egyptian Factors.

Early Influence from Delia ; Its high Pre-dynaslic Civilization.; Tehenu,
'the Olive-land'—source of G laze ware; Early Nilotic race, Proto-Libyan ;
Exquisite Ivories of Hierakonpolis; Nilotic Vessels; Ship Ensign, also
Aegean; Evidences of Sumerian influence on Nile~. Valley; The Gebel-el-
'A'rak Knife-handle; Semite invasions; Crete thus indirectly influenced
by East * Direct indebtedness of Minoans to pre-dynastic and proto-dynastic
Egypt; The Double Axe Symbol in Egypt; Pre-dynastic Stone Vessels at
Knossos; ''Libyan figurines—mantled types; Suggested influence of
Libyan hair-dressing—the Side-locks; ' Penis tasche or 'Libyan Sheath', com-
pared with Minoan usage; Female use of 'Sheaths'—Libyan and Minoan;
Beehive Tombs of Mesara answer to widely diffused Libyan type—distinctive
Vestibules; Connected with Mapalia; Prevailing early Cretan house-type
Square; Were Mesara tholoi related to ' Mycenaean' ? Parallels in structure
—'humped' lintels; Circular Well-House at Arkhanes of same date as
Mycenae tholoi ; Stone palettes and vessels of Nilotic type from Mesara tholoi;
Was there a Libyan element in S. Crete ? Shell inlay showing Negroized type ;
Pre-dynastic draught-boards and early Sistrum ; Cult parallels—Neith and
Diklynna; Early Nilotic bows and chisel-edged arrows; Shield of Neith
resembles Minoan ; ' Palladuim' and Minoan Goddess; Direct apprenticeship
of Minoan Craftsmen; Varied indebtedness to early Egypt; Early Minoan
ivory seal showing Lion guarding body in contracted attitude of dead; Fresh
examples of Early Kingdom Stone Vessels from Knossos ; Carinated bowls and
'Moustache cup'; Knossos a staple of early dynastic Egypt.

By what agencies then at the close of the Cretan Neolithic phase did
the new impulse from the South reach the Island, that did so much to
influence the whole later course of its culture ? In view of the new light thrown
on these questions by recent finds on the site of Knossos and elsewhere it is
necessary, at the risk of some repetition and even digression, to revert to
this question, which has really a fundamental bearing on the origins of
European civilization.
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