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Sztuka Ameryki Łacińskiej: studia o sztuce kolonialnej, nowoczesnej i współczesnej — 2.2012

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La iglesia de los Jesuítas en Cusco como un modelo, ..


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Jesuit church in Cusco as a model shaping the architecture
At the end of the first half of the 17th century, a “European” character of Peruvian
architecture was loosened. In 1650, an earthquake in Cusco destroyed existing
buildings and, as the result, proved to be an impetus for building movement in-
tensification. One of a few buildings which were not destroyed was a still unfin-
ished Cusco cathedral, which later played a unique role in baroque architecture
development in Peru. The temple was undoubtedly one of the first productions
which could be associated with a baroque style. However, without diminishing
the significance of the object, it is worth emphasizing other (not less important)
sources of baroque architecture in the region. Another temple that undoubted-
ly influenced the shaping of a new trend in local building was a Jesuit church
in Cusco. Mentioned as an important object for Peruvian architecture of the co-
lonial period, it is usually treated as an element in the sequence of baroque ar-
chitecture development in Peru. It is worth emphasizing the role that the temple
played in creation of certain architectural models, which were present in Peru-
vian building of the late 17th and 18th centuries. Three analysed elements are:
a facade composition (influence on the architecture of Cusco: San Pedro, Nues-
tra Señora de Belén, San Sebastián and the region - temples in Ayaviri, Asil-
lo, Mamara, Huaquira, Puno); a design, a spatial layout and a structural system
(similarity to a Jesuit church in Cusco of the temples of San Pedro in Cusco, San
Pedro in Juli, Santiago de Pomata, Pisco); decorative-ornamental motifs - tow-
ers’ finials (San Pedro in Cusco) or columns’ decoration (Santa Cruz in Juli).
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