Ars: časopis Ústavu Dejín Umenia Slovenskej Akadémie Vied — 1982

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https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/ars1982/0273
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xpaňHMMH noJiiocaMw: co3epLianMCM h a6cTparnpoBaHneM.
Ho m3 3Toro, b ôojibmoiî Mepe HCMCTopMHecKO-aHTponoaorn-
hcckoto ocMMCJieHMH MCKyccTBa, y KyTaaa ne BO3HMKaa umkhuh-
naa KOHpeniiHH hctopmm. McTopnio oh paccMaTpnBaeT KaK
pa3BMTMC B3aHMOCBS3M XyflOXeCTBCIIHOÜ CHeiJM(|)HKH. KaseCTBa
mm nocTMraeM HenocpepcTBeHHO, ho ne nocniracM mx cmbicji.
CmMCM = B3aHMOCBH3b BO3HMKHOBCHMÍ1, reHC3MC. KaHCCTBa
B MX cneUMCjjHBHOCTM Mbl OÖbilCHHCM TCM, HTO OTOXeCTBJlSæM
pa3BMTMe B3aHMOCBH3M, M3 KOTOpOM OHM BO3HMKHH. HpOM3BC-
peHMil MBJIillOTCa 3B6HbBMM 3BOJIK>UHOHHbIX pSt/lOB M B TO »
BpeMH 3TM pip.lbl peaJlM3yK>T. 1-TiaK, CMblCMOM XyjTOTKeCTBCHHOM
cneiin(J)MHHOCTM HBjiaeTca tbophcctbo mctophm, TBopaecTBo
B3aMMOCBS3M paSBMTMM, flHHaMMKM. 3bOBK>UMM, XOTSI M BHyT-
peHHe coctomt M3 CTpyKTyp, pacHjieHiieica Ha necKoabKo
TCHCHMM, HO peiUatOLHMM BCe TKC ÍIB.TÍICTCÍI flBMXeHMC, flMHaMMKa,
HenpePbiBHbiM npouecc oÔHOBJieHM». Ochobom mctophm aB/iaer-
ca ne cmhxpohmm, a AMaxpoHM».
□BOJHOUMOHHaa B3aHMOCBB3b caMa no ceôe nojina CMbic.na.
TaK KaK xyaoxecTBeHHoe KanecTBO HBJiseTca /jocTaroMiibiM
coaepîKaHneM, to m npMHMHHa» BsaHMOCBinu sbjicsitc« jiocra-
TOHHblM MCTOpHHeCKMM OÖMCHCHMCM. HcCMOTpa Ha 3T0 3BO-
JHOLlHil He HBJlaeTCH aÔCOJHOTHO aBTOHOMHOM (HTO BejIO K HC-
MCTOpMHCCKOM UMKJ1HHHOCTM y BëjlbtjwTHHa), M He flOnOJIHHTejlb-
HMM CKMBOJ1OM CHMBOJIMHeCKMX paMOK Hau yCJIOBHOCTH CBO6TO
BHpeMeHM (KaK b mkohojiofhm), m ;ia>Ke He Bi.ipaxeiiMeM crmpMTy-
aJibHOCTM m ee KOHKpcTM3anHM (KaK b „raHCTreuiHXTe“): caMO-
ßbiTHoe xyflOTKecTBenHoe pa3BMTMc HaxoaMTC« b cbh3m c coum-
aabHO-MCTopMHecKHM npoHeccoM. 3to — cbshb napaaaeabHo-
CTM. OpHaKo, 3pecb penb mpct ne o 3arapoHHon, Mera(|>H3M-
hcckom napanJiejiBHOCTH, a o caMOCTO»TcabHOM n caMoöbiTHOM
„pemennn“ npooaeM BpeMeHM nocpeflCTBOM MCKyccTBa. Xypo-
jKecTBeHHoe pa3BHTne OTpaacaeT cOHnaabHO-ncnxonorMMccKMe
npoöaeMbi b CBoeä cneHMcjmaecKOií xyaoxecTBeHHOCTM. Ho sto
He oTpaxeHHe, a MHCTpyMeHT: ncKyccTBO mmchho cBoeii cneijH-
(jiMKOM ynacTByer b „peiuennn“ npoöJieM BpeMeHM m Bceraa
c no3HUMM onpeae.TeHHoro KJiacca. XypoxcecTBeHHoe pa3Bm ne
»BnaeTca BbipaateHMeM caMOCTOMTeabHoro „penienns“ stmx
npoöncM. Hmchho BCJieflCTBMe 3TOH caMOCTOBTeabHOCTM peme-
HHJ MO5KCT BO3HMKHyTb M BO3HHKaeT paTHOiaaCMC (j)OpM M CO-
aepxannii, KaK h nepcuecenue onpepeacHHBix <|)op.M m3 oahoto
cotlnaJibHoro caoa b apyroil. YnacTMe b pemeHMM npoÖJieM
BpeMeHM cneun<j>wHHO He tojibko tcm, hto ocytueciBjiiteTca pe-
nieHHeM cneun<t)nLiecKnx xyaoxecTBemibix npoö.aeM (sto c.ne-
nyioiitHM cnoii caMOCToaTeabHOCTh m m3 hcm BbiTeKaeT nncTpy-
MeHTaaM3M (JjopMMMxnepeHOCOB: OTcyTCTBne epHHCTBa ccopep-^
TKaHMeM; coaep>KaHHe MBaaeTCM cneacTBHeM (fiyHKHHM.). CaMO-

öbiTHOCTb m cneuncjiMHHOCT b yaacTMs MCKyccTBa b coijMaabHO-
MCTOpHHeCKOM npOHCCCe COCTOMT B TOM, HTO KOHKpeTHbie HCTO-
pnHeCKHe coiinaabHO-ncnxoaorHHecKMe npoöneMbi oho ,,pe-
inaeT“ bo BHeBpeMeHHOM naane Man TpaHC<j>opMMpyeT mx bo
„BHeBpeMeHHyio" naaTijjopMy othoiuchmíi k peaabHOCTM. Ho
sto OTHomeHHe copepxHT TaKxe othouichhc caMoro MCKyccTBa
K MMpy, KaK M MCKyccTBa K MCKyCCTBy. TaK „aBTOHOMHbie“
h caMoöbiTHbie peuieHMa u cospaßaHne 3bohjohhohhbix b33mmo-
CBS3CM CTanoBiiTCM napaaaeabHbiMM peuiennaMM counaabHo-
MCTopMHecKoro npouecca. B caeacTBne btom napaaaeabHoü
caMOCTOBTeabHOCTH OHM c raiiOBSTca nOTeHUMaabHbiMM MHC t py-
MeHTaMH MCTopHHecKoro npouecca: b o/ihom caynae MoryT
öbiTb yxopoM, b mhom npepBocxMuicHHeM, nauM(])n3auHeH,
BocxBaaeHMeM h t. a. CaMa ([lyiiKunft MCKyccTBa Mensierca
MCTOpMHeCKM MMCHHO B CMay 6TO OTHOCMTCabHOM CaMOCTOa iCJlb-
hoctm. 3Ta caMocTomeabnocTb — caMocToaTeauHocTb ero
cneun<|)MHecKoro pasBurna. McKyccTBO othochtcm npexac
Bcero k coiinajibHo-ncMxojiorHHccKOMy caoio, noaTOMy motkct
npoxoflHTB TpaHctjiopMauneM b oöpasoBaHMe othouichmíí ncKyc-
CTßak peaabHOCTM.
TaK KOHKpeTHaa ncropaa MciiaeTca b BHeßpeMennbie xyao-
xecTBCHUbie KanecTsa: CMbicaoM btmx KanecTB aBjiaeica MCTopn-
HecKaa kohkpcthoctb, TaK KaK ona mx renexnc. OßparHo >i<e
xypoxecTBeHHbie KaaecTBa coanaioT couMaabHO-ncnxoaorn-
HCCKylO MCTOpMHHOCTb. UcKyCCTBO C03flaeT MCTOpMK) MMCHHO
TCM, HTO CO3paeT BHCBpeMCHHblC HeHHOCTM. XyflOiKeCTBeHHOe
paaBHTMe copnaabHo-HCTopMHecKM (JiyHKpMOHaabHo mmchho
TCM, HTO OHO CBOCÖHTHO.
McTopna MCKyccTBa KyTaaa Bbipocaa M3 KOHuenunn Bchckom
HiKOabi b ee pnrabCKon M paHHeil flBopjKaKOBCKon CTaziun.
ilBaaeTCM ce TpaHC<|)opManHeM. Ho c apyroií CTopoHbi KyTaa
CBoen HaTypoM npoMBnaa cKaoHHOCTb k anraocaKCKOMy smim-
pMnecKOMy paHMOHaan3My. Ochobhoc npoTHBopenMe ero
KOHiieuunu — 3MnnpH3Ma m KOHCTpyKTMBM3Ma — Beao k nep-
MaHeHTHOMy cKencncy aBTopa. 3to 6biao npoTHBopenMe Bepbi
B HCOÔXOflMMOCTb M BO3MO5KHOCTB OObCKTMBHOrO U03HaUMSI
(b peaabHoe cymecTBOBaHne sBoaioHHM, ancKBaTHocib koh-
CTpyKpMH M peaabHOCTM) C OflHOM CTopoHbi, M HepMaHCHTHblM
comhchmcm o ero aaeKBaniocTH (bo3mo>khoctm hocthhb koh-
KpeTHocTb) c flpyroň CTopoHbi. Ckchcmc, oanaKo. oKaaaaca
aKTHBM3MpylOmMM SHCMCHTOM CTO KOHHCHHMH: HOCTOallHO
noöyxiiaa ero k hobbim ycnaHMM no3iianna. TaKUM oöpasoM,
Mbi HFinae.Mca CBnacrcJiaMM npaMenareabHoro m pe/jKoro (Jjaxia,
hto aBTop MMnaMHMTHO npnMeHaeT caM na ceöe cboto rHoseoao-
TMHecKyio TeopMio: coßcTBeHHbie no3HaHMS ocMbicaHBaeT KaK
3BeHbM B aBOatOHMOHHOM pßfly.
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