Ars: časopis Ústavu Dejín Umenia Slovenskej Akadémie Vied — 1977-1981(1977)

Page: 49
DOI article: DOI Page: Citation link: 
https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/ars1977_1981/0053
License: Free access  - all rights reserved Use / Order
0.5
1 cm
facsimile
49

BeK> ne óbijio ÓJiaronpHHTHoro BpeweHH aah cnopTa. Mec-
tom Bo3po>K achhíi cnopTa, a TeM caMbiM h CTaAHOHa, ÓHJia
BHKTopnaHCKaa Ahtjihh, KOTopas AaJia Miipy kojwickthb-
Hble HrpbI. BpHTaHCKHe CT3AH0HM AO BTOpOH MUpOBOH
BOHHbl Obiji H HCKJIIOHHTejIbHO yTHAHTapHCTHHCCKHMH oßb-
e,<TaMH, KOTopbie nocTeneHHO pacinnpajiHCb 6e3 eAnnoro
aPXHTeKTOHHHecKoro saMbicJia. Ha pa3BHTHe cTaAHona b
3HaHHTejIbHOH Mepe HOBJ1HMA äHTHHHblH IlaHa(|)HHafiCKHH
CTa/lHOH b A(j)HHax, BO3o6HOBJieHHbift aah nepBbix Ojihm-
nnficKHx urp b 1896 roziy: oh craji hcxoahoíí tohkoíí
KjiaccHiiH3Hpyiomero HCTopiWMa, KOTopbift npoAOJixcajicn
OtleHb AJIHTCJIbHOe BpeMH.
rioCTpoeHHblň B JlOHAOHe CTaAHOH AAH OaHMHHHCKHX
HrP b 1908 r. 6biji nonbiTKoft BMecTHTb b oahh oßieKT
Bce bhah cnopTa. HecMOTpa Ha to, hto 3Ta nonbiTKa
He yBennajiacb ycnexoM, ee hobtophjih b Espone eme
«eCKOJIbKO pa3. BepUIHHOÍÍ apXHTCKTOHHHCCKOrO pa3BHTHH
CTaAHOHa ao nepBoň mhpoboh bohhbi 6biji cthahoh Híie
Boyji b HbioraBene (1914 r.) apxHTeKTopa AoHa Bapóepa,
Ho SojlbHIHHCTBO äMepHKaHCKHX CTaAHOHOB eme B ABaA-
PaTbij roAbi necjio cjieAbt KjiaccHn.H3Hpyiomero HCTopH3Ma.
Aajxe JIoc Shaähahc Kojinseň óbm komhpomhccom MextAy
3THMH AByMH THH.1MH.
K nepBbíM xyAOJKecTBeHHbíM HanpaBJíeHHsiM, KacaiomHM-
Ca TaKHíe CnopTHBHOft apXHTCKTypOH, OTHOCHTCH FOJIJiaHA-
cKaa rpynna «He cthhji» h cobctckhc KOHCTpyKTHBHCTbi.
06-beKTOM, xapaKTepMyiouiHM rpynny «He cthhji», ómji
Gahmhhhckhh cTaAHOH b AwcTepAaMe (1925 r.) Bnjica.
B CCCP npoeKTHpoBaji M. KopnteB orpoMHHft cnopTHBHbiň
aPeaji b MocKBe-JIy>KHHKax c OTBancHbíMH noABecHMMH
TPn6ynaMH (1926 r.), ho ero npoeKT He 6hji ocymecTBJíen.

B CIIIA B03HHKAH nepBbie BTaiKHbie TpnßyHbi h yrAyßjieHO
npoc|)HJiHpoBaHHbie TpnßyHbi. Ha ocnoBe CTaTHCTHnecKoro
HccAeAOBaHHH T. TaAAeH npnuieA k luiany Tpn6yH b 4>op-
Me KpyroBoro cerMeHTa.
B Eßpone n. JI. HepBH cAeJiaa npoeKT CTaAHOHa b <Djio-
penuHH (1929—1932 rr.) H3 cóopHbix sjicmchtob c Kpbinien
B BHAe CKOpjiynbl H CO CMCJIblMH JieCTHHHHblMH MapmaMH;
3AeCb, Ha 3T0M OÖieKTe OH C03A3JI CBOH CBOeo6pa3HbIH
apXHTeKTOHHHeCKHH CTHJIb. OrpOMHbie MH0r03Ta>KHbie TpHĎy-
nbi, KOTopbie oh npoeKTHpoBan aah PnMa, HHKorAa He óhjih
nocTpoeHbi. JIpyrHe HTaAbHHCKHe cthahohbi Tex BpeMen
XOTÍI H HCXOAHJIH H3 CTapOpHMCKHX aMljlHTeaTpOB, HO He-
cMOTpn Ha sto HeKOTopbie hx apxHTeKTOHHnecKne sjicmch-
Tbi noBJíHHJiH na pa3BHTne ctsahohob h b Apyrnx epso-
neňcKHX CTpanax. Ctbahoh HnnaMO b Mockbc, caMbiň
ÓOJIbUIOH B CCCP AO BTOpOH MHpOBOH BOHHbl, HaXOAHJICH
B 3HaHHTeJIbHOH CTeneHH nOA BJIHHHHCM KOHCTpyKTMBH3Ma.
Ojihmhhhckhh CTaAHOH b BepjiHHe yxe HeceT npH3HaKH
CTpOroft TH/KCJIOBeCTHOH apXHTCKTypbl FHTJiepOBCKOH Fepwa-
hhh. Ctbahoh b XeAbcHHKH apxHTeKTopoB H. JlHHAerpeHa
h T. EHTHrra 6biji paciunpeH jiyHooópa3HOH npncTpoHKOH
b Ayxe 3aKJiK>HeHHH PaAAena, ho Ha cojihchhoh cTopoHe
TpnöyH.
B TpHAUaTbie roAbi b Espone noHBHAHCb nepBbie 3Ta>K-
Hbie TpHÖyHbl. TaKHe TpHÔyHbl Ha CTajIbHOH KOHCTpyKUHH
ßbijin HcnoJib3OBaHbi b cTaAHOHe OeňeHopA b PoTTepAaMe,
apx. BpHHKMana h Ban Aep Bjiyrra (1937 r.), KOTopbiň
MOJKHO CHHTaTb caMOH ycneuiHOH peajIH3ailHeft AO BTOpOH
MHpOBOH BOHHbl. HoCAeBOeHHOe paSBHTHe ÓbMO HaCTOAbKO
CAOJKHbIM H ßbICTpbIM HTO AAH 3T0F0 nOTpeßyeTCH C3M0CT0-
HTejibHasi HayHHast CTaTbu.

^he historical development of the stadium until
thé Second World War

The ancient Greek stadium was designed first of all
f°r foot-racing. Therefore it consisted of a straight track,
ahout 200 m long, with stands on one or both sides. The
Raturai forms of the terrain were ušed for building it:
h Was locaited either irato a slope of a hill (Olympia), or
■nto an avalanche (Athens). In the hellenistic period the
Semicircular outline of its ending appeared.
Although the Roman amphithéâtre was not designed for
sP°rts, it influenced the modern stadium more than the
Greek one. It was built in a concentric shape and the
system of communications was removed from the surface
°f the auditorium into the space below it (Colosseum).
The long period from the decay of the ancient world
the 19th Century was a period unfavourable for sporting.
The revival of both the sport and the stadium took place
victorian England, where collective games came into
místence. However the British Stadiums unfrii the Second

World War were entirely utilitaristic structures, enlarged
step by step without artistic aims. The ancient Panathenaic
Stadium of Athens, reconstructed for the first Olympic
Games in 1896, influenced the development of the stadium
to a great extent: it has been the .starting-point of claissi-
cistic historism, which persisted for a very long time.
The Olympic Games 1908 in London were the occasion
of a great experiment, the concentration of all compétitions
into a single huge stadium. Although without success, this
was repeated in Europe several times. The summit of the
Stadium architecture before the First World War was Yale
Bowl in Newhaven (1914) by Don Barber, but the majority
of American Stadiums still in the twenties were marked
by classicistic historism. Even the Los Angeles Colisseum
was a compromise between those two types.
The first artistic movements interested in stadium archi-
tecture were the Dutch group of „De Stijl“ and the Soviet
loading ...