Ars: časopis Ústavu Dejín Umenia Slovenskej Akadémie Vied — 1977-1981(1977)

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https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/ars1977_1981/0187
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Konenno, neJioBeK cnocoóen tbophtb xyAO-
JKecTBeHHbie oópasbi cosnaTejibHo h HejienanpaB-
AeHHO, Tor^a Kai< npupoAa co3AaeT hcbto noAoó-
Hoe cthxhhho h neperyjiapHO. H t3m, rfle b npn-
pofle na óecKOHomoe mhojkcctbo BapnauTOB
Cj)OpMOO6pa3OBaHHH npHXOAMTCH K3K0H-T0 OflHH
oßpasen, c xyAOJKecTBCHHbíM aoctohhctbom, t3m
b TBopnecTBe nejioBeKa Top>KecTByeT ocosnaHHoe
noCTOHHCTBO, MaCCOBOCTb, ÓeCKOHeHHOe COBep-
uieHCTBOBamie oópasoB Ha onpeAejieHHyio TeMy.
Ho sto Bce x<e pasHiiya KOJiHnecTBenHoro, a ne
KanecTBeHHoro nopHAKa.
CepbesHbíM BO3pax<eHHeM npoTHB toto, htoóm
TpaKTOBaTb H3OÓpa3HTejIbHbie (J)OpMbI IipHpOAbl
Kax oTpaíKeHne, hejihctch yKasanne na OTcyTCT-
Bue npHMbix BpeMfiHHbix h npmuHHO-cjieACTBeH-
Hbix CBH36Ö MORAV «OTOÓpa>KaeMbIM» (AeÖCTBH-
ïejibHbiM rojiyóeM, 33hhhkom, óapamKOM h t. n.) h
ero npeAnojiaraeMbiM «oTpaaienneM» (KaivieHHbíM
hjih ApyruM 3OOMOp(J)HbiM hoaoóhcm). Morav
têm h ApyrHM b npnpoAe HaÓJiioAaeTcn npocToň
napa;uiejin3M, TorAa Kax b HCKyccTBe wejiOBexa
xyAOJKecTBenHbiň oópas h no BpeMenn n no co-
AepxaHMio npeACTaBJíneT coóofi cjicactbuc co3-
HarejibHoro oTpaxieHiin onpeAeJieHHbix oó^cktob.
Ho npn óojiee BHHMaTeAbHOM paccMOTpennn h
sto pasjinnne ne KaxceTCH tskhm v>k oneBi-iAHbíM.
JXeJIO B TOM, HTO B OTpajKCHWM AeHCTBM'rejlbHOC'rH
nejiOBeKOM TaK>Ke MoryT óbitb snanHTejibHbie
BpeMenHbie n npHHHHHO-cJieACTBeHHbie cMemeHHH.
Xoporno H3BecTHbi (JiaKTbi «onepoKaiomero ot-
paxaiomero oipaxenna AeScTBHTejibHOCTH»
(Ahoxhh), KOFAa OTpaxenne, cKanæM xyAOxœcr-
BeHHbiň oópas JieTaiomero annapaTa — CKason-
Horo KOBpa-caMOJieTa, kocmhacckoto cnapnAa b
poMane }K. Bepna «Hs nyniKii na Jiyny», saAOJiro
npeAmecTByeT noíiBJíenmo xeňcTBHTejibHbix ca-
Moaêtob h paKCT. BoJiee toto, KaKafl-HHÓyAb ann-
MajiHCTunecKan hjih Apyran MpaMOpnan cKyjibn-
Typa, c03AaHHan hcaobekom, othioab ne hbah-
btch peayjibTaTOM npflMoro h nenocpeACTBeHHoro
BO3AeňcTBHH OTpaxcaeMoro oÓTbeiíTa, jkhbothoto
HanpjiMep, Ha MpaMOpnyio rJibióy hjih Apyron
MaTepnaji xyAoxecTBenoro TBopnecTBa. O6'i>ckt
xyAojKecTBeHHoro H30Ópa>KeHHH HenocpeACTBen-
HO OTpaJKaeTCH JIHIUb B CO3HaHHH XyAO>KHHKa,
KOTOpblřt 33TËM CTpeMHTCH OÓTiGKTHBHpOBaTb
MAeajibHbiň oópas b kakom-to MaTepnajie, tom

>xe MpaMope, h cosnaTejibHo AOÓHBaeTca toto,
nero npnpoAa AOCTHraoT cthxhhho — coBnaAe-
HHH (j)OpM OAHHX («OTpaXOIOIHHX») OÓHeKTOB
c (j)opMaMH Apyrnx («OTpaxaeMbix») 0ÓT>eKT0B.
KaK BHAHM, H HCKyCCTBO HeJIOBCKa B K0H6HH0M
cneTe npnxoAHT k xapaKTepnoMy ajih npnpoAM
napajiJiejiH3My (jjopM.
OneBHAHaa oóihhoctb b pesyjibTaTax (jíopMO-
TBopnecTBa npnpoAbi h TBopnecTBa nejioBeio, na-
jiHHHe b hhx TaKoro sjíeMeHTa OTpaxReHHH, KaK
H3oópa3HTejibHoe coBnaAeHHe cj)opM oahhx o6t>-
6KT0B C CpOpMaMH ApyrHX, BCejIHIOT yBepeHHOCTb
B TOM, HTO TpyAHOCTH B OÓOCHOB3HHH MbICJIH 06
HCKyccTBe npnpoAbi coBpeMeneM óyAyT npeoAO-
jieHbi.
Hpn KBajIH(J)HIIHpOBaHHH TOTO HJIH HHOTO 4)op-
MOOÓpa3OBaHHH KaK npOH3BeABHHH HCKyCCTBa He-
MajioBa>Kiioe sHaneHne HMeeT napaMeTp b bi p a-
3HT6JIbHOCTH (TaÓJI. 4). IIoA HOCJICAHCH
MOJKHO nOHHMaTb BbipaJKCHHC B nJiaCTHKC, HBeTe,
pHTMHKC, HHTOHaHHHX TOTO HJIH HHOTO XyAOIKeCT-
BeHHoro oópasa nyBCTB xyAOJKHHKa, ero smoijho-
HajIbHOFO OTHOHieHHH K AeÖCTBHTeAbHOCTH. B ap-
XHTCKType, ACKOpaTHBHOM HCKyCCTBe, MySblKe
nacTO óbiBaeT TaK, mto oópas HenocpeACTBenno
ne H3oópax<aeT onpeAejieHHoro oó^eKTa h CHTy-
an,HH, no npn noMOin.H ocoóoro coothoiuchhh h
ynopHAoneHHocTH sjicmchtob cjiopMbi HaMeKaeT
na xapaKTepHbie >KH3HeHHbie CHTyaunn h nepe-
AaeT yTonqeHHbie qyBCTBOBanHH nejioBeKa.
Kohoiho, ecjiH óbi b BbipasHTejibHbix oópasax
npHMO h HcnocpcACTBeHHo óbiTOBajin qyBCTBa ne-
AOBeKa, TpyAHO óbijio 6h Aame cTaBHTb Bonpoc
0 CymeCTBOBaHHH K3KHX-T0 aHaAOTOB 9T0T0,
HanpHMep, b hokhboh npupoAe, KOTopaa kohch-
Ho x<e ne mbicjiht h ne nepOKHBaeT. Ho Bce aějio
B TOM, HTO npOH3B6AeHHe HCKyCCTBa, CaMO no
ceóe B3HToe, hhkota3 ne coAepzKHT (3a hckjiio-
qeHiieM npon3BeAeHHň ncnojiHHTeAbCKoro HCKyc-
CTBa) nyBCTB neAOBeKa — qyBcTBa BcerAa ocTa-
iotch b nejioBenecKOM hrtcjiacktc. B npoH3BeAe-
HHH (jlHKCHpyiOTCH JIHHIb c|)0pM00Óp a3OBaHHH H
(jlOpMOH3MeHeHHH, flB.THIOIH.HeCH CHTHaJiaMH 3THX
qyBCTB, Morymne óbitb BosóyAHTejiHMH hx b ncH-
XHKe jnoAeň. H nocKOJibKy, kbk sto neTpyAHO
ycTanoBHTb, saKOHbí cjiopMOTBopnecTBa y neAOBe-
Ka h y npupoABi b npHHiinne oöiune, hct Hiinero
VAHBHTeAbHOTO, HTO HpHpOA3 H3M AapHT MHO-
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