Ars: časopis Ústavu Dejín Umenia Slovenskej Akadémie Vied — 1985

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3jinHCKan apxwTeKTypa khk komhohcht qexocjiOBauKoro apxHTeKTypHoro aBaHrap.ua

TaK lias. „3JiMHCKaíT apxHTeKTypa“ cocTaBjmeT HeorbeM-
jteMyio qacTb qexocjioBaiiKoS apxnTeKTypt>i nepnoAa Me>i<Ay
AByMfl MiipoBBíMH bohhbmh. Ona 6bi.ua njiOAOM rpynnbi
MOAOAMX apXHTeKTOpOB — B. Kap4>HK, H. BojKeHHJleK, P.
r. TIoascmhh, B. KyóeHKa h ap-, — paóoTaBiunx y <[)npMbi
b ceroAHíiiuneM ToTBajibAOBe. Mnorae H3 hhx -
HCKOTopbie cme b nepnoA AOMtoHxencKOÍi pecnyójiHKH, npy-
rne nocjie ontiTa BTopoÄ MHpoBoö bohhh — npimijm
K COIlHaJIMCTHieCKOMy MlipOB033peHHIO, KOTOpblft Hauieji
OTBeTjiHBOe BbipanœHHe h b hx apxiireKTypHOM TBopqecTBe.
3/inHCKaít apxnTeKTypa opraHHqecKH Bbipacra.ua H3
(|>yHKUHH, TCXHOAOfHH H SKCIWiyaTailHH npOMblUIJlCHHOrO
3AaHMíi, npHBeM ona onupajiacb na sjicmchtbi CTaHAapTii-
3anHH, yHH(|)HKaiiHii h TiinoBbte noBTopHbie npoeKTbi. B Heft
6bIJI HCH0Ab30B3’H 3aHMCTBOBaHHbIH H3 AMepHKH MOAyjib
6,15x6,15 m, Ha ochob3hhh Koroporo óbui paspaóoraH
xapaKTepHbiH thk h;i3. „3ahhckh"i ckcact“, npHMeHHBUiHft-
C5I ne TOJlbKO B npOMblUIJieHHblX, HO H B OÓUieCTBeHHblX,
KVJIbTVpHblX, MeAHUHHCKHX, TOprOBblX H APyTHX 34aHHMX.
BeptlIHHOH 3JIHHCKOH apXHTCKTypbl SIBAHCTCH 1 7-3TaJK'HOe
aAMHHHCTpaTHBHoe 3naiiHe, nocrpoennoe b 1936—1938 rr.
no npoeKTy BjianHMHpa Kap<|)HKa, nepBoe bmcothoc sca-
nne eToro mna b Enpone. Oho Bi>i3na.'io HpesBbíHafiHbiH
HHTepeC CBOeň KOMHOHOBKOH, KOHCTpyKHHOHHblM H apXH-
TeKTypHbíM peuieHHeM. K AipyrHM aacjiyjKHBaioiHHM BHHMa-
hhh npoH3BeaeHHíi othochtcji: oómecTBeHHbiH aom (Kap-
<t>HK, 1930), KHHOTearp JI. Tarypa, 1931 —1932), na-
míithhk T. Bare, ceroAHH Rom HCKyccTBa (Tarypa, 1932),
Bee 9T0 b PoTBajibAOBe, KpoMe Toro, yMHBepcajibHbie Ma-
rasmu b lipane (B. Kncejia, Pí. Toqap, A. Černají, 1928—
—1929), ToTBajibAOBe (Tarypa, 1930), Bpno (Kap<|)HK,
1930—1931). Jlnóepeue (Kap<|>HK, 1930—1931), BpaTHCJia-
Be (KapcjiHK, 1931), AMCTepnaMe (Kap<|>HK, 1937).

3naqHTCJibHyio r;iany sjihhckoť apxHTeKTypbi cocraBjiaeT
TeppHTopnajibHoe njiaHwpoBaHne h crponrejihCTBO hobhx
roponoB, opneHTiipyiomeecíi na hach TaK Ha3. ropona-cana
C OTAejieHHblMH 3OH3MH HpOM KIHJieHHOCTH, JKHJlbtMH 3OH3-
MH, ueHTpaJibHbíM ó.iaroycrpoHCTBOM h 3OH3mh ajhi peKpea-
HHH. HneanbHbíM CTHTajica rppoA c HacenenneM b 10 000
íKHTe.neň. floc.ne nepBbix npsiMoyrojibHbix cxeM ycTanoBHA-
Cíl TaK H33. BHJIKOOÓpaSHblH HAH napaÖOJIHHCCKHH THH op-
raHH3amiH 3acTpoňKH. K ycneuiHbíM 3apy6e>KHbiM peaAH3a-
Hhíim cjieAyeT oTHecTH ropoAa: Bopoßo — lOrocnaBHH,
BeJiJi-Kawn — CILIA, BaTanarap — ■ Hhahh, BaTasa — Ka-
iiana, Xe.'iMeK — TToJibma, OrrMyT — TepwaHHH h np. Ap-
XHTCKTypa oOneKTOB BcerAa cqpeMHjiacb yHHTbisaTb mcct-
Hbie yc.TOBHH. y nac 6mah peannsoBanbi koaohhh: Cbht,
HapTH3ancKe, TpjKeÓHH, Bpyq-naA-CaaaBoy, Ccshmobo-
-Ycth.
OÓbHIHOH npaKTHKOH HpOCKTHOH KaHlle.TOpHH B 3aHH6
ÖHJIO COTpyAHHHeCTBO C BHCUITaTHblMH apXHTCKTOpaMH, KO-
TOpbie npHHOCHAH HOBble HACH. KpOMC BHAHbIX HeXOCAOBaU-
khx apxHTeKTopoB (Fl. Koïepa, H. Foqap, B. <t>yKC, K.
Pohikot, 3. PpyiiíKa), 3Aecb ómjih h 3apy6e?KHbie (X.
He<|), <I>. CßeAnyHA, <ï>. IIIyMaxep h b ocoööhhocth Jle
Kop6to3be). IIpoeKTbi Jle Kop6io3be, paapaóoTaHHbte aah
tjlHpMbl, OCTa.lHCb, OAHaKO, He 3aMeneHHbIMH.
Ilocne ocboóojkachhh MHorne 'Utenbi rpynnbi HCnonfa3O-
BaAH CBOÄ ÓOraTbIH Ollbrr b H3MeHHBUIHXCSI OĎIHeCTBeHHblX
H SKOHOMHieCKHX yCJIOBHSIX. BHOBb CO3AaHH3H OpraHH3a-
Hhh LJeHTponpoeKT b TorBajibAOBe npoAOjDKana rpaAH-
H.HH TaK Ha3. 3JIHHCK0H apXHTCKTypbl H HAeH THHH3aU.HH,
yHHijiHKauHH h cTaHAapTH3aiiHH Aajiee paspaóaTMBana b
paMKax coiiiianHCTHqecKoro crponrenbCTBa. BnaAHMnp Kap-
<|ihk CBoeři neAarorHHecKOH h TBopnecKoň AeJiTenbHOCTbio
OKaaaji bahíihhc h na pa3BHTiie apxHTeKTypw b Caob3khh.

Architecture of Zlín as Part of the Czechoslovak Architectural Avantgarde

The so-called “architecture of Zlín” forms an en tire
part of the Czechoslovak architectural avantgardě
between the two World Wars. It was a work of a
group of young architects, as there were V. Karfik,
J. Voženílek, R. H. Podzemný, V. Kubečka and others
who were working for the firm Bata in today’s Gott-
waldov. Several of them — some still during the
period of the pre-M,unich republic, others after the
cruel expériences of World War II — attained a so-
cialist view of life that became significantly expressed
in their architectural création, too.
The architecture of Zlín arose organically out of
the function, technology and management of an in-

dustrial building, taking advantage of the éléments
of Standardization, unification and typical repeated
projects. It used the module 6,15X6,15 m taken over
from America that resulted in the characteristic
so-called „Zlín skeleton“, used not only in industrial,
but social, cultural, sanitary, commercial and other
constructions as well. Top-work of Zlín architecture
— the 17-storeyed administrative building realizëd in
the years 1936—1938 according to the project of Vla-
dimir Karfik — was the first realized sky-high build-
ing of this type in Europe. It evoked an unusual
interest by its constructive, layout and architectonie
design. Among other remarkable works there are the
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