Petrie, William M. Flinders [Oth.]
The royal tombs of the first dynasty (Part I): 1900 — London, 1900

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ROYAL TOMBS OF THE 1st DYNASTY.

CHAPTER II.

DESCRIPTION OF THE TOMBS.

8. The Tomb of Zkt, pi. Ixi. This tomb
consists of a large chamber twenty feet Avide
and thirty feet long, with smaller chambers
around it at its level, the whole bounded by a
thick brick wall, which rises seven and a half
feet to the roof, and then three and a half feet
more to the top of the retaining wall. The
exact dimensions of these tombs are all given
together in sect. l$.y Outside of this on the
north is a line of small tombs about five feet
deep, and on the south a triple line of tombs of
the same depth. And apparently of the same
system and same age is the mass of tombs
marked as " Cemetery W," which are parallel to
the tomb of Zet. Later there appears to have
been built the long line of tombs which arc
marked partly Z, partly W, placed askew in
order not to interfere with those which have
been mentioned. And then this skew line gave
the direction to the next tomb, that of Merneit,
and later on that of Azab. Such seems to have
been the order of construction ; but as the
great mounds of rubbish, which I have not yet
moved, stand close to the east of Zet and
Cemetery W, tbere may be other features
beneath them which Avill further explain the
arrangement.

The private graves around the royal tomb are
all built of mud brick, with a coat of mud
plaster over it, and the floor is of sand, usually
also coated with mud. The steles found in the
graves around Zet are shown in pis. xxxiii.,
xxxiv., and the copies pi. xxxi., Nos. 1-16.
The places of such as could be at all identified
with the graves, are shown on pi. Ixi. by the

name from each being written on the chamber
plan. Beside these steles there were often the
names inscribed in red paint on the walls ;
these names are drawn in pi. Ixiii., and are
written close to the south Avails of the plans.
These painted names are always on the south
Avail of the chamber, close to the top of it. A
patch of Avhitewash about eight or ten inches
square Avas roughly brushed on the mud plaster
of the Avail; on that the hieroglyphs Avere
painted Avith a broad brush. Some lines are
pink, owing to the Avhitewash Avorking up Avith
the red in the brush. On a few are traces of
black also. The form of inscription is much
simpler than that of the steles ; the ha alch,
" glorified ka," only once appears, and there are
no titles or offices, only the name. The ha
arms often appear ; but whether this refers to
the lea of Du, A, Si, &c, or is really a compound
name, Ka-du, A-kat, Si-ka, is not clear.
Probably the latter is true, as the feminine / is
added to the ha in two cases, Avhich points to its
being in a name. Many of these names Avere
illegible, only fragments of the plaster remain-
ing;. Three I succeeded in removing;. The feAv
contents of these graves, left behind accidentally
by previous diggers, will be fully catalogued
in the next ATolume ; a feAV jars and beads, and
two or three pieces of inscribed stone doaa'Is
(each marked with their source in pis. iA'., vi.),
are all that Ave found.

9. Tomb of Zet, interior, pis. Ixi., Ixii.,
Ixiii. The first question about these great
tombs is Iioav they Avere covered over. Some
have said that such spaces could not be roofed,

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