Ars: časopis Ústavu Dejín Umenia Slovenskej Akadémie Vied — 1977-1981(1977)

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Pom hcaobchcckofo TBOpnecTBa — MacTepcTBOM,
KaK pas h AaioT HaM bosmojkhoctb npoBecra hct-
khh cpaBHHTejibHMH anajiH3 (jjopM npnpoAbi n
4>opM MCKyccTBa h, npii oÓHapyjKeHun b sthx
$opMax oóuihx coBnaAaromnx nepT, kb3ah(|)huh-
poBaTL onpeAeJieHHbie 4>opMoo6pa3OBaHHH KaK
HCKyccTBO npapoAbi.
npeACTaBHM ceóe ecTecTBCHHbie ([lopMOOópaso-
Bannsi b bhac cbctaofo Kpyra, a HCKyccrao ne-
JiOBeKa b bhac óojiee Hacbiin.eHnoro no HBCTy
Kpyra, h BTOpoň nanneM najiaraTb na nepBbiň
B TaKoií Mepe, b kskoh oÓHapyjKHBaeTCH coBna-
AëHHC XapaKTêpMCTHK CpaBHHBaeMblX 06"b6KT0B
(ïaôji. 1). Tor^a coBnaBinne nacra KpyroB (oótj-
eKTOB) ÓyAyT CHMBOAH3HpOB3Tb OÓIUHOCTb, KO-
Topaa coóctbchho h flaer ocHOBanne nasbiBara
^OpMOTBOpHCCTBO npHpOAbl H TBOpnCCTBO neJIO-
BeKa ncKyccTBOM, a HecoBnaBinne nacra óysyT
CHMBOAH3HpOB3Tb OTAHHHTCAbHblC npH3H3KH HC-
Kyccraa n pup ojm h ncKyccraa n e jioBeKa,
npeAynpexraaH o HenpaBOMepHOcra hoahofo hx
OTOJKAeCTBJíeHHH.
CpaBHCHHe no napaMCTpy MacrepCTBa (TaÓA.
2) npMBOAHT K BbIBOAy, HTO B HpHpOAë, OCOÓCH-
Ho jkhboh, onenb MHoro coBepmeHHbix, naoópe-
TarejibHbix h nsonjpeHHbix $opM, cooraeTCTBy-
lOIIIHX JKH3HCHHO Ba>KHbIM (JiyHKIIHflM H yCJlO-
bhhm cymecTBOBannH opraHH3MOB, — sto mho-
ronncjieHHbie jkhbhc jieraiomne, nsaBaromne,
Potomně «annapaTbi», «npnôopbi» opnenTaunn h
nepeAann MHtjjopMannn H t. ä- B stom njiane
npon3BeAeHnn TBopnecraa npnpoAbi ne toabko
coBnaAaroT no mhofhm npnsnaKaM c H3A6ahhmh
Tpysa h TBopnecTBa hcaobckh, no n cjiyxaT aah
hocacahhx rpyAHO AocranraMbiMH oópasuaMH.
Ha TaKoň čase (fjopMnpyeTcn ÓHOHHKa — coßpe-
Mennaa nayKa o MaTeMaranecKOM n Texnnnec-
kom MOAesHpoBannn coBepineHHbix tkhbbix cho-
těm [12; 19], CKa>KeM, n ceroAHH hoact
^KypaBjía, jierynefi mhihh h Apyrnx cymecra no
mhofhm noKasaTesHM hbahctch npeAMeTOM ca-
Mbix HAeajibHbix MenraHHH aBiiaKOHCTpyKTOpOB.
B HCTOpHH CBOerO pa3BHTHH AIOAH HaHHHaJIH
C03AaBaTb jieTaronjHe annaparai, noApanoH no-
Jiery hthif, h cennac ohh HbiTaioTcn cosastb
CaMblH 3K0H0MHHHbIH H MaHCBpeHHblH C3MOJICT
no ecTecTBeHHOMy oópasiiy — annapaT c Mainy-
UlHMH KpbIAbHMH («MaXOACT»).

EcAH FOBOpHTb O pa3AHHHHX MOKAy MaCTep-
ctbom npnpoAbi h MacTepcTBOM nejioBeKa, to
CAeAyeT ynHTbiBaTb, hto npnpoAa raopnT BcerAa
OÓ-beKTHBHO, TOJKAeCTBCHHO CO CTHXHHHblM AĚH-
CTBH6M 33KOHOB MaTCpHaAbHOFO MHpa. HejIOBCK
>Ke TBOpHT eme H CyÓ^eKTHBHO, B cootbctctbhh
co cBoeö bojích h hcahmh, AOÓHBancb peryjmp-
HOH H M3CCOBOH peajIH3aUHH CBOHX 3aMbICAOB.
Ho h 3Ta pasHHiia ne aócoAioraa.
HeAb3H ne ynHTbiBaTb, hto aah ocymecTBjíeHHH
3aMbicjiOB nejiOBCK hchsóokho oópamaeTCH k Ma-
TepnajiaM, cjiopMaM h BecbMa aKTHBHbíM chjmm
npHpOAbl H BblHyjKACH COFJiaCOBblBaTb C HHMH
CBOIO TBOpneCKyiO ACHTCAbHOCTb. «HcAOBCK B
npouecce npoH3BOACTBa, — nncaji K. MapKC, —
MOJKCT AĚHCTBOBaTb JIHIHb T3K, K3K AÉHCTByeT
caMa npnpoAa, to ecra mojkct H3MennTb tojibko
(JiopMbi BeipecTB. Bojiee toto. B caMOM stom
TpyAe (JlOpMHpOBaHHH OH nOCTOHHHO onnpaeTCH
na noMoujb chji npnpoAbi» ([4], cTp. 53).
B KonenHOM cnere ncAOBenecKan cyósieKTHB-
HOCTb, BOJIH H nenn CHJIbHbl CBOeň OÓTjCKTHB-
HOCTblO - COOTBCTCTBHCM peaAbHbIM BO3MO5KHOC-
THM npnpOAbl. npH 3T0M, C OAHOH CTOpOHH, npH-
poAa ne Jininena aKTHBHocTH, OTpaxeHHH, peajin-
3auHH ecTecTBCHHbix nporpaMM cymecTBOBanHH
JKHBblX 0praHH3M0B, a C Apyroň CTOpOHbl, TBOp-
necTBo neAOBCKa ne jihhicho cthxhhhocth, hh-
TyHTHBHOCTH, ßOJiee TOTO, OTAëJIbHblC XyAOJKHH-
KH «nOJIb3yiOTCfl OXOTHCH MeTOAaMH HHTyHTHB-
HbiMH, neM paccneTAHBbíMH» [25], PemaiomHM
napaMCTpOM, B COOTBCTCTBHH C KOTOpbIM TOAbKO
H MOJKHO 3aBOCBaTb npaBO Ha TepMHH «HCKyCCTBO
npnpOABI», HBAHCTCH OTpa>KCHHC (TaÓA. 3) .
XopOHIO H3BCCTHO, HTO HCKyCCTBO HCAOBCKa —
STO 4)OpMa OÓmeCTBCHHOrO CO3H3HHH, KOTOpaH
OTpa>KaeT ACHCTBHTCJIbHOCTb H MaTCpHajIH3yCTCH
B XyAOJKCCTBCHHblX OÖpaSaX. /[ah OTpaJKCHHH
BcerAa npncyme, Bo-nepBbix, OTpaxaeMoe tcao,
HBACHHC, CHTyaUHH, HpOHCCC, OÓTjCKT, h BO-BTO-
pbix, OTpaJKaiOIUHH OÓpa3 — nOCTOpOHHHH Ma-
TepnaA, npnHHMaiomHH cjiopMbi, b KOTOpbix c toh
HAH HHOH MCpOH aACKBaTHOCTH nOBTOpHIOTCH
(jiopMbi OTpa>KaeMoro oó-beKTa.
Hmciotch ah b npnpoAe TaKHe ([>opMoo6pa3o-
BSHHH, KOTOpbie B OAHHX MaTepHaAaX, CKa>KCM,
HOKHBOH npHpOAbl, HOBTOpHIOT (ßOCnpOH3BOAHT
HAH npeABOCXHinaiOT) npH3H3KH OÓ-bCKTOB, B35I-
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