Instytut Historii Sztuki <Posen> [Editor]
Artium Quaestiones — 23.2012

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Artur Kamczycki

Israelis have studied the place of art within the Zionist milieu.
Steven Fine1
What complicated the idea of Jewish aniconism was late-nineteenth-century Zionism.
Kalman Bland2

The “idea of the return,”3 propagated by Theodore Herzl (1860-
1904),4 postulated an extensive use of visual arts to popularize Zionism.
In a letter to baron de Hirsch of 3 June 1895, Herzl wrote: “Before we
start creating a Jewish country, we need to expand the propaganda sys-

1 S. Fine, Art and Judaism in the Greco-Roman World. Toward a New Jewish
Archaeology, Cambridge 2005, p. 9.
2 K.P. Bland, Anti-Semitism and Aniconism. The Germanophone Requiem for Jewish
Visual Art, (in:) C.M. Soussloff (ed.), Jewish Identity in Modern Art History, London 1999,
p. 57.
3 Selected publications on Zionism: Sh. Avineri, The Making of Modern Zionism. The
Intellectual Origins of the Jewish State, New York 1981; A. Hertzberg, The Zionist Idea.
A Historical Analysis and Reader, Philadelphia and Jerusalem 1997; J. Reinharz and
A. Shapira (ed.), Essential Papers on Zionism, New York and London 1995; M. Berkowitz
(ed.), Nationalism, Zionism and Ethnic Mobilization of the Jews in 1900 and Beyond,
Leyden 2004; M. Berkowitz, Western Jewry and the Zionist project, 1914-1933, Cam-
bridge 1997; M. Stanislawski, Zionism and the Fin de Siècle. Cosmopolitanism and na-
tionalism from Nordau to Jabotinsky, Berkeley-Los Angeles-London 2001; H. Haumann
(ed.), The First Zionist Congress in 1897 - Causes, Significance, Topicality, Basel 1997.
4 Selected biographical publications include: A. Stand, Theodor Herzl, Warszawa
1905; O. Thon, Theodor Herzl, Berlin 1914; J. de Haas, Theodor Herzl, vol. I-II, New York
1927; M.W. Weisgal (ed.), Theodor Herzl. A Memorial, New York 1929; A. Bein, Theodor
Herzl. A Biography, Wien 1934 (Jerusalem 1941); J. Fraenkel, Theodor Herzl. A Bio-
graphy, London 1946; R. I. Cohen, Theodor Herzl: Founder of Political Zionism, New York
1959; D. Stewart, Theodor Herzl: Artist and Politician, London 1974; S. Beller, Herzl,
London 1991; A. Falk, Herzl, King of the Jews. A Psychoanalytic Biography of Theodor
Herzl, Lanham-New York-London 1993; J. Kornberg, Theodor Herzl. From Assimilation
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