Instytut Historii Sztuki <Posen> [Editor]
Artium Quaestiones — 23.2012

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ROZPRAWY

Artur Kamczycki
WRESTLING WITH ART.
ZIONISM AND JEWISH ANICONISM

Israelis have studied the place of art within the Zionist milieu.
Steven Fine1
What complicated the idea of Jewish aniconism was late-nineteenth-century Zionism.
Kalman Bland2

The “idea of the return,”3 propagated by Theodore Herzl (1860-
1904),4 postulated an extensive use of visual arts to popularize Zionism.
In a letter to baron de Hirsch of 3 June 1895, Herzl wrote: “Before we
start creating a Jewish country, we need to expand the propaganda sys-

1 S. Fine, Art and Judaism in the Greco-Roman World. Toward a New Jewish
Archaeology, Cambridge 2005, p. 9.
2 K.P. Bland, Anti-Semitism and Aniconism. The Germanophone Requiem for Jewish
Visual Art, (in:) C.M. Soussloff (ed.), Jewish Identity in Modern Art History, London 1999,
p. 57.
3 Selected publications on Zionism: Sh. Avineri, The Making of Modern Zionism. The
Intellectual Origins of the Jewish State, New York 1981; A. Hertzberg, The Zionist Idea.
A Historical Analysis and Reader, Philadelphia and Jerusalem 1997; J. Reinharz and
A. Shapira (ed.), Essential Papers on Zionism, New York and London 1995; M. Berkowitz
(ed.), Nationalism, Zionism and Ethnic Mobilization of the Jews in 1900 and Beyond,
Leyden 2004; M. Berkowitz, Western Jewry and the Zionist project, 1914-1933, Cam-
bridge 1997; M. Stanislawski, Zionism and the Fin de Siècle. Cosmopolitanism and na-
tionalism from Nordau to Jabotinsky, Berkeley-Los Angeles-London 2001; H. Haumann
(ed.), The First Zionist Congress in 1897 - Causes, Significance, Topicality, Basel 1997.
4 Selected biographical publications include: A. Stand, Theodor Herzl, Warszawa
1905; O. Thon, Theodor Herzl, Berlin 1914; J. de Haas, Theodor Herzl, vol. I-II, New York
1927; M.W. Weisgal (ed.), Theodor Herzl. A Memorial, New York 1929; A. Bein, Theodor
Herzl. A Biography, Wien 1934 (Jerusalem 1941); J. Fraenkel, Theodor Herzl. A Bio-
graphy, London 1946; R. I. Cohen, Theodor Herzl: Founder of Political Zionism, New York
1959; D. Stewart, Theodor Herzl: Artist and Politician, London 1974; S. Beller, Herzl,
London 1991; A. Falk, Herzl, King of the Jews. A Psychoanalytic Biography of Theodor
Herzl, Lanham-New York-London 1993; J. Kornberg, Theodor Herzl. From Assimilation
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