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868 Appendix B

The scythe of Time1 should, I think, rather be derived from the scythe of Death,
who was often conceived as a reaper or mower2 and in folk-celebrations of Mid-
Lent was sometimes represented by a straw puppet with a scythe in his hand3.
The hour-glass of Time likewise copies the hour-glass of Death so frequently
figured in the Danse Macabre^ of the Middle Ages. But Time himself is pre-
sumably the lineal descendant of the Byzantine Chronos or Bios. And it may
well be that the knife, if not the balance, of Bios was modified to suit the popular
effigy of Death. After all, the Church's idea of Life has often borne a suspicious
resemblance to the world's idea of Death, n'y §' oidev el to £rjv ]ikv eVri KarOaveiv, \
to Kardaveiv 8e grjv Kara) vojXL^eTaL0 ;

If the main lines of the pedigree are as I have supposed, a further point may
be descried. As at the first the razor of Kairos, so at the last the scythe of Time,
was a symbol drawn from ritual usage. Such symbols live longest.



Since the mountain-cults of Zeus have not, even in Germany, been made the
subject of separate and detailed investigation 6, it seemed worth while to collect
the evidence both literary and monumental bearing upon them. The inferences
that can be drawn from the evidence have for the most part been already stated".

The Greeks worshipped Zeus Oreios 'of the Mountain8,' Zeus Koryphaios

1 Ancient, medieval, and modern representations of Time are discussed by F. Piper
Mythologie und Sy?nbolik der christlichen Kunst Weimar 1851 i. 2. 389—409.

2 J. Grimm Teutonic Mythology trans. J. S. Stallybrass London 1883 ii. 848, 1888 iv.
1558, K. Simrock Handbuch der Deutschen Mythologie* Bonn 1878 p. 479.

3 J. Grimm op. cit. 1883 ii. 772, W. Mannhardt Wald- imd Feldkidte*1 Berlin 1904 i.
155 f., 412, 418, 421, cp. 420, Frazer Golden Bough'3 : The Dying God p. 247.

4 On the various forms of the Danse Macabre see F. Douce The Dance of Death
London 1833 with 54 pis., E. H. Langlois Essai historique, philosophique et pittoresque
sur les Danses des marts Rouen 1852 in 2 vols, with 54 pis. and many figs., J. G. Kastner
Les Danses des morts Paris 1852 with 20 pis. Bibliography in H. F. Massmann Literatur
der Todteittanze Leipzig 1840 and E. Vinet Bibliographic mdthodique et raisonnie des
beaux-arts Paris 1874 pp. 116—121.

0 Eur. Polyeidos frag. 638 Nauck2. See further F. H. M. Blaydes on Aristoph. ran.
1477, infra Append. N init.

6 R. Beer Heilige Hdhen der alten Griechen und Romer Wien 1891 pp. x, 86, written
as a supplement to F. v. Andrian Der Hdhencultiis asiatischer und europaischer Volker
Wien 1891, is a slight and disappointing book. C. Albers De diis in locis editis cultis

pud Grae'cos Zutphaniae 1901 pp. 1—92 is likewise quite inadequate (see Gruppe Myth.
Lit. 1908 pp. 115, 316). The lists given by Welcker Gr. Gotterl. i. 169 ff., Preller—
P>.obert Gr. Myth. i. n6f., Farnell Cults of Gk. States i. 50 ff., 152 ff., Gruppe Gr. Myth.
Rel. p. ii03f., though useful, are incomplete.

7 Supra i. 1176°. et passim.

8 Zeus "Opeios. E. Renan Mission de Phenicie Paris 1864 p. 396 f. recorded two
identical inscriptions on blocks of gritstone formerly used for the lintel of the church-door
at Halalieh: erovs fVj, fir]vbs 'A7reA\cuoi> te, Qpeirriwv (N)etKWi'os tov ^waLirwov tovs 5i5o |
\eovTas Ad 'Opetw, /car' ovap, e/c tQiv iSiwv, evaefi&v avidrficev. The year 257 in the Seleucid
era would be 55 B.C., in that of Antioch 209 A.D., in that of Sidon 147 A.D. Renan held