S C H
SCHOOL is a term expremve of the feries of artilfs
who have lived in any country, and whofe works,
therefore, have pofTefTed more or lefs refemblance of
manner and principles.
The term is alfo ufed for the difciples of a great mailer,
who drawing their principles from the fame fource, may
naturally be fuppofed to have many ideas and modes in
common. The term School, therefore, is rather allied
to the ftyle of art, and refemblance of manner, than to
identity of country or of refidence.
Of National Schools, the principal are the Roman,
the Venetian, the Lombard, the Flemish ; to which
may be added, the German, the French, and latterly
the English. As each of thefe fchools has its refpec-
tive manner, a few hints on each may be acceptable.
The Italians drew from the antiques, fuch fuperior
advantages of ftyle, and elegance, that the Romans
(who efpecially abounded in antiquities) furpaffed all
their competitors in purity of defign : not con-
tented with a mere imitation of nature, they en-
deavoured, like the authors of the examples before them,
to furpafs and improve it. They have happily adopted
the molt noble and interefting attitudes, and expreffions
of the figure. The countenance they rather wiflied to
render vigorous, than beautiful; considering it as the
mirror of our paflions and fenfations.