Universitätsbibliothek HeidelbergUniversitätsbibliothek Heidelberg

Evans, Arthur J.
The Palace of Minos: a comparative account of the successive stages of the early Cretan civilization as illustred by the discoveries at Knossos (Band 4,2): Camp-stool Fresco, long-robed priests and beneficent genii [...] — London, 1935

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§ 103. The Minoan Genii and their Relation to the Egyptian Hippo-
potamus Goddess: Their Beneficent Functions and Divine

The Minoan Genii and their origin—Earlier Views—MilchhSfer, &c.; Winter's
Comparison with Hippopotamus Goddess Ta-urt: Wear dorsal appendage^ not skin
of Victim ; Impersonation of animal victims excluded; Predominance of lion's head
type; Genii sprung from Ta-urt but transformed in Minoan sense; Characteristics
and attributes of Hippopotamus Goddess—resemblances presented by the Minoan
daemons; Astral relations of Ta-urt also reflected ; Ta-urt = Ursa-Minor; Controls
'haunch' sign of Set (Ursa Major); Impersonation of Isis, Guardian of Horus;
Astronomic Ceiling of Sen-mut Tomb ; Early imported scarab with Ta-urt type from
Mesara tomb; First appearance of Minoan Genii; Examples on bronze hydrias
from Kurion L. M. I b ; Suggestions of Crocodile between Genii; Correspondences
with details of Egyptian astral scenes ; The ( Daemon Seals ' of Knossos ; Genii as
carriers and leaders of animals; Bull and cow led by horns—parallelism with
Vapheio scenes ; Genius leading Hon; Talismanic class of bead-seals with libation
vessels, of M. M. III-L. M. la date; Vegetation charms; Rain-bearing ritual on
Seal types from Knossos and Thisbe ; Ewer-hokHng Genii engaged in similar ritual;
Confronted daemons on Vapheio gem, pouring libations into fountain basin before
sacred palm—the fountain of Bercnton ; Genii pouring libations into tripod caul-
drons on pillars and over altar-blocks and cairns; Ta-urt and Minoan Genius on
Cylinder Seals, 'Syro-Hittite' and 'Cypro-Minoan'; Minoan Genii bear drink offerings
to Goddess on Tiryns signet; Cylinder from Kakovatos with Genius guarding lion-
slaying hero—Minoan Herakles; Analogy of Ta-urt assisting Horns against Ox of
Set; Genii between lion guardians as representatives of divinity; Genii as Ministers
to youthful God—Bead-seal of Spartan basalt from Kydonia.

§104. Fresh Discovery of a Chryselephantine Image of Boy-God:

the Minoan Tonsure and Evidences of Hair-Offering . . 468

New Chryselephantine figure of boy-God; Comparison with earlier discovered
example; Of somewhat maturer age; Gold plates of loin clothing-—parallel to those
of 'Goddess of Sports'; 'Proto-Armenoid' physiognomy; Shorn head—evidence
of tonsure; Biretia worn ; Primitive custom of hair-offerings—hair source of life and
strength ; Cutting off of ' Childhood's locks1 at Age of Puberty; Hair-offerings to
Syrian Goddess; Dedications of locks of hair in Temple of Carian Zeus Panamaros;
Cretan connexions of his Cult—a God of the Double Axe; Sculptural representa-
tions of votive tresses—Thessalian stela ; Evidence of votive representations of hair-
offerings in Minoan Shrines; Plaited steatite tresses used as affixes at Knossos and
Mycenae; Ex volo of this kind found in relation to Palace Sanctuary of Domestic
Quarter; Rite of tonsure as seen on the chryselephantine image associated with
Youthful God.

§ 105. Retrospect of Minoan Bead-seals and Signet-rings: Typical

Forms and Select Illustrations......4^4

Primitive bead-seals of ivory and soapstone; M. M. Ill and Transitional phase
illustrated by hoards of sealings ; Similar deposits at close of palatial period at
Knossos; Early Nilotic sculptural influences—proto-dynastic ivories imitated in a
more natural manner; Sculptured style common to stone vases and seals—Owl type ;
Middle Minoan seal-types on hard stones, &'c.—hieroglyphic prisms ; ' Signet' seals
and those with foreparts of lions; Disuse of hieroglyphic seal-types at close of
M. M. II; Appearance of portraiture, naturalistic animals, and rock scenery; Flat-
sided disks —precursors of lentoid type; Lentoids in vogue by M. M. HI—the
Zakro seal impressions; Lentoid types: flying bird, calf's head, and instantaneous