Stuart, James; Revett, Nicholas
The antiquities of Athens (Band 1) — London, 1825

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CHAPTER III.
OF THE OCTOGON TOWER OF ANDRONICUS CYRRHESTES.

This octogon tower is of marble : on each side is a figure in relievo, representing one of the eight
winds; which proves it to be the marble octogon tower, built at Athens by Andronicus Cyrrhestes :
as will appear from the following description of it, given us by Vitruvius \ ' Some have chosen'
says he, 'to reckon only four winds, the East blowing from the equinoctial sun-rise, the South from the
noon-day sun, the West from the equinoctial sun-setting, and the North from the polar stars. But
those who are more exact, have reckoned eight winds, particularly Andronicus Cyrrhestes, who on
this system erected an octogon marble tower at Athens, and on every side of the octogon, he wrought
a figure in relievo, representing the wind which blows against that side; the top of this tower he
finished with a conical marble, on which he placed a brazen triton, holding a wand in his right hand;
this triton is so contrived that he turns round with the wind, and always stops when he directly faces
it: pointing with his wand, over the figure of the wind at that time blowing.'

In order to give an exact idea of the present state of this buildingb, it is necessary to observe,
that since the time it was erected, the surface of the ground is raised fifteen or sixteen feet on every
side of it, except that which looks to the north-east; here indeed it is not raised above ten or twelve
feet, for the entrance is on this side, and a considerable quantity of earth has been removed to make.

" Vitruvius in the sixth chapter of his first book, treating of
the number and quality of the winds, and their effects on the
human body, has occasionally described this building in the fol-
lowing words: ' Nonnullis placuit esse ventos quatuor, ab
oriente osquinoctiali Solanum, a meridie Austrum, ab occidcnte
aquinoctiali Favonium, a septentrionali Septentrionem. Sed qui
diligentius pcrquisiverunt, tradiderunt eos esse octo, maxime qui-
dem Andronicus Cyrrhestes, qui etiam exemplum collocavit
Athenis turrim marmoream octogonon, et in singulis lateribus
octogoni, singulorum ventorum imagines exsculptas contra suos
cujusque flatus dcsignavit, supraque earn turrim metam mar-
moream perfecit, et insuper tritonem a;reum collocavit, dextra
manu virgam porrigcntem, et ita est machinatus, uti vento circum-
ageretur, et semper contra flatum consistcret, supraque imaginem
flantis venti indicem virgam teneret.' Book I. Chap. VI.

b This monument, not mentioned by Pausanias, is so fully and
correctly described by our authors, that subsequent research
can produce but little additional information: it is nearly in the
same state as when measured by them, and the Dervishes still per-
formed in it their religious dance, until the insurrection of Attica
at the commencement of the present war. This horologium was
near a supposed entrance to the Agora, opposite the principal
one of which the propylajum remains, and in that situation it
must have been a most apposite structure. The dials are con-
jectured by the Chevalier Delambre to be an after-thought subse-
quent to the completion of the edifice, an opinion which with
other observations derived from the application of profound gno-
monical science to the consideration of this structure, we cannot
do better than give in his own words. lie observes, " Vitruve,
qui a decrit cette tour des vents, ne dit pas un mot de ces huit
cadrans, et ce qu'il y a'dc singulier, c'est qu'a l'endroit de son
ouvra<re, ou il parle de tous les cadrans connus, il garde le
meme silence sur les huit cadrans dAthenes quoique plus im-
portans a tous egards que ceux, dont il nomme les inventeurs.

On seroit ce semble, en droit de conclure de ce silence que ces
cadrans ont ete ajoutes apres coup, et qu'ils seroient par conse-
quent d'une date posterieure au temps de Vitruve, et surtout
au temps dAndronicus Cyrrhestes, auteur du monument.
Stuart qui se fait lui-meme cette objection, tache d'y repondre
par un passage de Varron, qui parlant de cette tour la designe
par les mots de Tour de I'Horloge. Cette Reponse qui n'est rien
moins que peremptoire, le devient encore bien moins, par les
efforts que fait Stuart pour prouver que la tour renfermoit une
horloge d'eau, dont les vestiges existent encore dans des conduits
qu'il a decrit avec soin, et dont il a donne les figures dans deux
de ses planches. Si la tour renfermoit une Clepsydre, Varron a
pu la nommer tour de l'horloge; il l'eut nominee tour des hor-
loges, si outre cette Clepsydre elle eut offert huit autrcs horloges
ou cadrans solaires.-—Les auteurs du Diet. Hist, en parlant de
1'architecte Andronicus ne disent rien du temps ou il a vecu,
ceux de la Biog. Universelle disent qu' on juge par le style dejd
corronipu de I'architecture de ce monument, et par la mediocrite
des bas-reliefs, qu'il est poslerieur au temps de Pericles. Du
temps de Pericles et d'Anaxagore la science gnomonique etoit
trop peu avancee chez les Grccs pour qu'on eut trace a Athenes
ces huit cadrans. Les historiens en auroient parle comme du
premier Gnomon etabli par Anaximandre a Lacedemone.'—Rien
ne s'oppose a ce qu'on le suppose (Andronicus) cotemporain
d'Hipparque.—S'il n'y a pas de preuve contraire, j'inclinerois
fort pour l'opinion qui leur assigneroit pour date l'une des pre-
mieres annees de notre ere." Vide Magasin Encyclopjedique.
Tome I. 1815, et Tome V. 1814, Art. Notice sur la Gnomo-
nique des Anciens par M. le Chevalier Delambre. Secretaire de
l'lnstitut Royal de France. We shall have occasion further to
quote from the remarks of this distinguished mathematician, in
the description of the plates delineating the lines of the dials,
but for the scientific details and calculations we must refer the
reader to the volumes just mentioned. LKI)-D
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