The Artist's Assistant, In the Study and Practice of Mechanical Sciences: Calculated for the Improvement of Genius. Illustrated with Copper-Plates — Birmingham, [ca. 1785]

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to the feveral objects; and the leiTening and render-
ing dim and confufed the appearance of different
objects in a landfkape, fo as thev {hall appear there
as they would do to an eye placed at that diftance
from them, is called, in painting, degradation.

As to painting in wat;r colours, called limning,
in contra-diftinttion of painting properlv (o called,
which is done in oil colours, the ufual colours are
proper enough, excepting the white, made of lime,
which is only ufed in frefco, But the azure, or ul-
tramarine, muft always be mixed up with fize, or
with gum ; in regard to yolks of eggs, they give blue
colours a greenifh tinfture ; but there are always ap-
plied two lays of hot fize, before the colours mixed
even with fize, are laid on : the compofition made
with eggs and the juice of the fig tree, being only
ufed for touching up, and finifhing, and to prevent
the neceffitv of having the fire always at hand to
keep the fize hot ; yet it is certain, that the fize
colours hold the beft. and are accordingly always
ufed in cartoons, &c.—This fize is made of fhreds
of thin leather, or of parchment.

To limn on linen, the beft is that which is old,
half worn and clofe.—This is ftamped with white
lead, or a fine plaifter beaten up with fize ;. which,
once dry, we muft go over it with a layer of the
fame fize.

The colours are all ground in water, each by it-
felf; and in proportion as they are required in
working, are diluted with their fize water.—If the
yolks of eggs are defired, they muft be diluted with
water made of equal quantity of common water
and vinegar, with the yolk, white, and fhcll of an
egg, and the end of the little branches of a fig

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