Riou, Stephen
The Grecian orders of architecture: delineated and explained from the antiquities of Athens ; also the parallels of the orders of Palladio, Scamozzi and Vignola — London, 1768

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of Arch'tteEture.


and nicety of workmanship. The moss: clioice materials are the fine marbles, ivory, and metals gilt;
tho' it is but very seldom that the estimates will asford these cxpences. The churches and palaces os
Rome furnish many instances of a profusion of such magnificence. The difserent colours of mar-
hies must be judicioully sorted to harmonize together, and being heightened by the gildings os
the parts made os bronze, such as the bases, capitals, modihons, &c; produce the most sink-
ing essects.
The expence of bronze metal is considerable, but it is preferable to all others sor these iises;
Wood takes the gold very well, but is liable to rot srom the moisture os the marble : lead is not
exposed to the same accident, but the gilding bestowed upon it is always very dull.
The outline of any one moulding, or os sevcral taken together, as the entire cornice of an
order, is called the profile ; the semicircle is the profile of the torus; a perpendicular line is that
of the plinth : a section or sawing thorough any number of mouldings, gives their true delineation.
The art os delineating profiles is a moil necessary talent for excelling in architecture; became,
the same artist who may succeed well in the distribution os a plan, and in a fine composition
for an elevation, may at lasl obseure the merit of his work by the bad esfect of his profiles.
The antiquities of Rome furnish examples os several, which are bolder than they are correct;
the same may be said of Michael Angelo's. The most elegant profiles are the lead charged with
mouldings, and have not an unmeaning repetition of the same kind, but contain alternately a mix-
ture of curvilinear and square ones; and above all, the smaller ones are introduced between the
greater, that by such a striking opposition, the efsect may be more pleasing. The prefecture of
the prosile mult also be proportioned to its height, regard being had to the body whereon it is
immediately placed; and it is to be observed, that some great moulding mould predominate in
the profile of a principal member, as the drip or corona in the cornice, whereof it is a most
essential part. It is Surprizing that the corona has been omitted in some works of great repu-
tation, as in the Temple of Peace at Rome. (See Palladio, Lib. IV.) The equality of heights
of mouldings in the same profile Should be carefully avoided. When a lesser moulding is placed
over another, it Should not be more than half, or less than one fourth of the moulding under it.
Thus, the fillet upon the cima recta, and the aStragal or bead under the ovolo, cannot be allowed
less than one fourth, or more than one third of the cima recta or ovolo. The dentel is the high-
est of all the mouldings under the drip, and the drip a very little lower than the cima recta
above it; the cima recta is too low, both in the external and internal orders of the Pantheon.
See Palladio, Lib. IV. The cornices of the orders most frequently finish with a square moulding or
fillet just above the cima, but Sometimes with an additional circular moulding above the fillet.
The pannels or boxes in the sosfit between the two modilions Should always be square, as well as
the intervals wherein they are placed, as will be further noticed in its proper chapter.
To make a good choice of profiles, neither drawings nor books can give sufheient intelligence;
because a profile that yields a fine efsect in one situation, will not answer in another. A frequent
comparison of profiles in disferent edifices is the surest means of acquiring a good manner. Pal-
ladio, Scamozzi, and Vignola, of the moderns, have excelled in this branch, but the Athe-
nian antiquities surnish an elegant variety unknown to them. The artist who would surpass m
this point, should not always delineate profiles with a ruler and compasles, he should often Sketch
them by hand upon a very large scale, and this practice will be found not altogether unnecessar.y
and useleJ's.
Whatever care the Gothic architects have taken to render the execution of their works perfect,
the disagreeable figures they combined for their mouldings, have slamped upon them all the
marks of barbarism ; fhe,se desormities become more sensible, when compared with examples of
she antique, which are amazingly beautiful, by the elegance, the variety, the choice and Simpli-
city of the mouldings that compose the Grecian profiles.
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