Ars: časopis Ústavu Dejín Umenia Slovenskej Akadémie Vied — 1.1967

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DOI issue: DOI article: DOI article: Citation link: 
https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/ars1967/0172
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K Bonpocy npoHcxo/KaeHmi H3o6pa/KemiH JlHouinKa
B HapO/XHOM H306pa3HT6JIbH0M IlCKyCCTBC

K nanGoxee CBOeoôpasnbiM cxoBauKHM HapoAHMM npexa-
hhhm othochtch OBennnan xerenxaMH JinoLunKOBCKan Tpa-
AMIJHfl, KOTOpaa M3 CxOBaKHH pacnpOCTpaHHXaCb H B HeKO-
Topbix KapnaTCKMx aew.'inx. OxníieTBopenneM stoh TpaxniiHH
íiB/iíieTCíi paaßofijiHK lOpo Hhoiuhk, cymecTUOBaime Koroporo
na rpann 17 n 18 bokob ncTopn'iecKH xoKaaano. O neM na-
poAHbie CKasaHHíi FOBopjiT, wo oh ,,y GoraTMx Gpa.i, a 6ex-
HHM paaxaßax“.
CnexeiiHn o JIiiotniiKe npexcTaB.naioT cyöxnMaunio cTapbix
paaßoHHMHbHx xerenx, Gepymnx naqa.no b xa.neKOM npom.noM,
Tax KaK paccKasbi o pasöofinnKax b cxoBauKnx ropax cy-
ujecTByioT y?Ke b panneM cpexneneKOBbe n b Go.nee nosxnee
BpeMH. Oxnaxo spoft caMoro mnpoKoro pacnpocTpanennii
pasöonHH'iecTBa b CnoBaKnn öbi.nii 17 bck m nepsán nojioBnna
18 Bei<a. 3tot nepnox — KaK sto cor.nacno ycranoBnJin jiHTe-
paTypoßexbi n (jjojibKXopncTbi — coßnaxaeT n c nanöoxee
fiorarbiM paciiBeTOM pasGonnnnbeft TeuiaTHKH b cjiobcchom
h necennoM TBOpnecTBe c.noßanKoro napoxa n 3aTeM ero
BbiKpncTaxxHSOBanne b cjjnrype ftnoiuHKa no bccm npaßii.naM
coBpeMennoro napoxnoro xyxojKecTBennoro Kanona.
OxiiaKO sToft CHTyaiinn napoxnoe H3o6pa3HTeJibnoe nc-
KyccTBO cooTBeTCTByeT ne bo Bcex OTnoinennjix. 3xecb mm
HMeeM b Bnxy hcmto coBepwenno noßoe, n nacTonman cian-bsi
íiBXíieTCJi nepBoň nonbiTKon HKOnoxornqecKoro H3XO>KeHH5i
3T0T0 HBJieHHil.
Maynasi HCTopunecKO-reneTHnecKoe pasBHTne npexciaB-
xennn HnornnKa b napoxnoM H3o6pa3HTejibnoM ncKyccTBe,
Kai< Beneu CTapbix pasóoňunqbnx jierenx, b paßoTe KJiaccn-
(ptniipyioTCJt nanGoxee craphte xyxojKecTBenno-M3o6pa3H-
Te.nbHbie xannbie HHoniHKOBCKon .nerenxfai n KOHCTarnpyeTCJi,
MTO Me>KXy CaMbIMH paHHHMH njIOCKOCTHblMM M3O6pa>KeilH-
SIMH JIHOinilKOBCKOM TeM3THKH CyilieCTBVIOT B OCHOBHOM XBa
Tnna.
CymnocTbio oxnoro H3 hhx íiBJííieTCsi repajibAHHecKHM
npHHixnn aKcnaxbuoft KOMno3Hu.nn c ocbio, oßpaaoBannofi
CTBOJiOM xepeBa, b KOTopoe paaGonnnKH, paccTaBJieniibie no
oóeHM CToponaM, Bcaxn.nn cboh „BaJianiKn“ (Tonopnan).
B paßore KOHCTampyeTCH, wo onncannbin "ran 6mji, no Bcefi
BepoaTHOCTH, orpannnen TeppnTopnen ioro-3ariaxnofl nacra
CxoBaKMH n ncne3, BepoHTHo, b nepBoft nojioBnne 19 b.
lIto KacaeTcsi mnpoTbi Teppmopnanbuoro pacnpocTpa-
nenna, qacTOTM b mhcxchhocth n bo BpeMenn, h b ocoGennocTH
xyxojKecTBennoM nepepaßoTKn, to iinornnKOBCKan TeMaTHKa
nanóoxee snaMenaTe.nbno npoaBJiaeTcn b napoxuofi jkhbo-
nncn na oßpaTnoß CTopone cTeKjia. AßTopaMH stoh jkhbohhch
6bixn nen3BecTHbie napoxnbie xyxojKHHKH, KOTopsie nyreM
sanMCTBOBannn, npn 6o.nee noxpoßno nensBecTHbix fiaxi
oöcTosiTexbCTBax, KanoHH3npoBaxn onpexexennyK) komho-
3HIIHIO BeJinnecTBeiiHOH HKOnorpac|)HHecKOM Konuennnn n 3na-
HHMOCTH. XOTH B 9THX HapOXHblX H3o6pa>KeHHfIX Ha OÖpaTHOH

CTopone CTeKJia nnoinnKOBCKHn mothb h nojiBJiaeTCJi b ne-
CKOXbKHX CTHJieBblX pexaKLlUÍJX H yMepeHHblX K0MH03H-
UHOHHblX MOXMtfUKaHH^X, 0XH3K0 UeHTpaXbHyjO nO3HHJIIO
cpexn hhx sanHMaeT onpexexenHbin BbiKpncTaxjiM3OBanHbiH
TJin, KOTopbiH aBTop naabiBaeT „^InornnKOBa xpyJKnna“
n KOTopbiH, no TOXKOBannio c|)oxbKxopncTOB, npexcTaBJineT
HnonniKa (n b stom mne nnKorxa ne Bbicrynaiomero oxn-
hohho, a Bcerxa tojibko co cbobh xpyJKunoft) b to BpeMa,
Korxa cpexn KaKoro-nnöyxb xoctohhofo Becejiba npnnn-
Maxcsi b xpyJKnny hobbih nxen. 3tot hobmh nxen xpy>KHHbi
H30Ópa>KaeTCíi b npb!>KKe BBepx npn ncnbiTannn ero cnxbi
n JiOBKOCTH. CaM JIhohihk oöbiHHO noMenjaeTCii na npaBOM
Hxn na jieBOM i<paio H3o6pa>KeHHa.
B paGore yKasbisaeTCii na necKOXbKO ocoGennocTeft, na
KOTopbie xo cnx nop ne o6pam,axocb BunMannn, no KOTopue
CBÍI3anbl C 9THMH KapTHHaMH. 3xeCb MMeeTCH B Blixy npejKXe
Bcero c.nexyiomee: iinoinnKOBCKasi Jierenxa xox&a Gbixa 6bi
ÛblTb H CO BC6M TeM OpHTHHaXbUblM, B WM Ona npOflBJIfleTCH,
nacxexneM ßapoKKO, oxnaKO na nsynaeMOM komboshiihoh-
hom Tnne mm ne naxoxnM nnnero, wo mofjio 6m onpexexenno
rOBOpHTb O BXHÎ1HHH ßapOMHOH H306pa3HTeJlbH0H KyjIbTypbl.
Cyxa hmcto no ochobhoö cjjopMOBOn cxewe, jKHBonncb
noxoónoro KOMnoanunoiinoro pacnoxoncenníi (nanpnMep Pac-
niJTne, Boanecenne n t. n.) osnanaeT, KaK npaBn.no, npo-
cxaB.neiine, BoaBbiuienne n t. X- ripnBOXHMOe nsoöpajKenne
to/kc HiiTepnpeTnpyeTCii KaK ,,B03BMnienne“, t. e. „nocBH-
menne“ hobofo npnmexbua b paaöonnnKH.
B paöoTe yKasbißaeTcn n na xa^bneftmue ocoGennocTH.
AnajinanpyeMoe jiB.-ieiine ne TOXbKO BbipasnTexbno phtmh-
necKH pacnxeneno, no n KaK 6m pacno.nojKeno b oxhom npo-
cTpancTBennoM njiaiie. CnMMeTpnji, pnTMH3aunii, BepTHKaxb-
HOCTb II peXyKU.H5I HpOCTpaHCTBeHHMX OTHOmeHHH B OXHOH
n.nocKOCTH — Bee sto owHb cTapbift npHHiinn, KOTopbift Jiynme
Bcero BbixeJiHTCFi, ecxn y 3pnTe.njj co3xacTca BnenaTxenne,
MTO Bee 4>nrypbi xannon cnenbi, Konenno HCKJiiOHaa (fmrypy
b npbijKKe, noxHHnenbi npnnunny nsoKecjjajinn. H3OKec|)ajiHn,
npaßxa, MBXiieTcsi npnanaKOM n sanaxnoft poManTHKn, no
FJiaBHblM o6pa30M H npejKXe Bcero BHSaHTHÖCKOft KOMnO3Hn,HH.
Abtop nacTOíímeň paôoTbi acconnnpyeT, xotji h onenb
OTxaxenno, komhoshiihio mna „ftiioinHKOBa xpyncnna“
C neKOTOpblMH M03aHK3MH H3 OÖXaCTH BOCTOMHOH nOXOBMHbt
CpexH3eMHOMopbjj, ocoöenno Pasennbi.
B saKXioHenne asTop OTMenaeT, wo hobmc naxoxKH cno-
BauKux cpexneßeKOBbix ctchhmx pocnncefl yKaabiBaioT na to,
WO TpaxniFMH BH3aHTHHCK0H JKMBOnHCH B CjIOBaKHH H B O(j)H-
nnajibHOM nepKOBHOM ncKyccTBe oG.iaxa.'in ropasxo óo.nee
npoxojiJKHTeJibHoft n rjiyßoKoft jKH3HennocTbio, neu xo ne-
xasnero BpeMenn npexnoxarajiocb n wo sto ncKyccTBO
Bcerxa ömjio b Cjiob3khh aMaxbraMnpoBano npnnnnnaMH,
eme n xo cero BpeMenn »HBymnMn b napoxnoM ncKyccTBe.

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