Platner, Samuel Ball; Ashby, Thomas
A topographical dictionary of ancient Rome — Oxford: Univ. Press [u.a.], 1929

Page: 441
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REGIA

441

vidimus flavum Tiberim ... ire deiectum monumenta regis templaque
Vestae). In it was a shrine of Mars, sacrarium Martis, in which were
kept the hastae and ancilia of that god (Serv. Aen. vii. 188, 603 ;
viii. 3 ; Gell. iv. 6. 1, 2 ; Cass. Dio xliv. 17 ; Iul. Obs. 6. 36, 44, 44 a, 47,
50 (ed. Rossbach) ; WR 503, 556 ; Jord. ii. 271-272 ; RE i. A. 1880 ; cf.,
however, Becker, Top. 229-232 ; RE i. 2113) ; and the sacrarium Opis
Consivae (Varro, LL vi. 21 : Opeconsiva dies ab dea Opeconsiva quoius in
regia sacrarium quod ideo artum ut eo praeter virgines Vestales et sacer-
dotem publicum introeat nemo; Fest. 186, 249; Fast. Arv. a. d. viii
Kai. Sept. vi. 32482, CIL i2. p. 237; WR 203, 502). Certain sacri-
fices are recorded as having been performed in the regia (Varro vi. 12 ;
Fest. 329; Macrob. i. 15. 19, 16. 30), a sheep was offered to Janus on
9th January by the rex sacrorum (CIL i2. p. 306), and the blood of the
October horse was sprinkled on its hearth and the head fastened on its
wall (Fest. 178; Plut. q. Rom. 97; cf. Cass. Dio xliii. 24; and see
BC 1920, 152-162). The archives of the pontifices were probably kept
here, for the tablets from which the annales maximi were edited, were
hung on the outer wall of the building (Cic. de leg. i. 2. 6 ; Gell. ii. 28. 6 ;
Dionys. i. 76. 3), and it was the place of assembly of the college of pontiffs
(Plin. Ep. iv. 11. 6 ; Cic. ad Att. x. 3 a, 1 ; WR 503), and at times of the
Fratres Arvales (CIL vi. 2023. 9). Atrium Regium (q.v.) is referred to
the regia by Jord. i. 2. 380, and Toeb. 3.
The regia was burned and restored in 148 b.c. (Obseq. 19 ; Liv. epit.
Oxyrh. 127-129 ; Gilb. iii. 407 (for a possible burning by the Gauls in
390 b.c., see Mem. Am. Acad. ii. 59-60) ) ; and again in 36 b.c., when
the restoration was carried out by Cn. Domitius Calvinus who created a
building, small but of unusual beauty (Cass. Dio xlviii. 42 ; cf. Plin. NH
xxxiv. 48 ; CIL vi. 1301 ; EE iii. 266). The evidence of the ruins shows
that the statement of Tacitus (Ann. xv. 41) that the regia was destroyed
in the fire of Nero is greatly exaggerated (for possible injury by the
great fire in Commodus’ reign, see Herodian i. 14. 3). The building is
represented on a fragment of the Marble Plan (21), and is mentioned in
the third century (Solin. loc. cit.) and probably in the fourth (CIL vi. 511)·
The existing ruins belong to three periods, the republican, the early
imperial and the mediaeval. Of the superstructure of the first two
periods almost nothing remains except the lowest courses of some of the
walls and many architectural fragments. The republican remains
are found only in the foundations of the imperial structure, the ground
plan of which is practically identical.
There are traces of the repairs of 148, while the walls of cappellaccio
probably date from well before the fire of 390 b.c. After the restoration
of Calvinus the regia was shaped like an irregular pentagon, filling the
space between the Sacra via, the temenos of Vesta, and the temple of
Julius Caesar, and consisting of parts unsymmetrically joined together.
The principal part was trapezoidal, with a mean length of about 22 metres
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