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Macellenses : a name applied to those who dwelt near the macellum
Liviae, found only in one inscription (CIL vi. 31897 ; BC 1891, 356).
Macellum : the first of the three macella known to us in Rome, situated
just north of the forum. We are told that this market was burned in
210 b.c. (Liv. xxvii. 11) and rebuilt, but in 179 b.c. M. Fulvius Nobilior
seems to have erected a new structure on the north-east side of the basilica
Aemilia (which was built by himself and his colleague in the censorship),
which absorbed the forum piscarium, the forum cuppedinis, and other
special markets that occupied this site (Varro, LL v. 146-147 ; Fest. 238 ;
Liv. xl. 51). It probably consisted of a central building, which in Varro’s
time was a tholos in shape, surrounded with shops (Liv. loc. cit. ; Varro
ap. Non. 448 ; Altm. 73, 74). The name, like the Greek μάκελλον (Varro,
LL. v. 146), is thought to be Semitic in origin (Walde, s.v.), but was
variously explained by the Romans (Varro, loc. cit. ; Fest. 125 ; Donat,
ad Ter. Eun. 256). The entrance to the market-house was called fauces
macelli (Cic. Verr. iii. 145 ; pro Quinct. 25), and a short street, the
Corneta (Varro, LL v. 152), led from it to the Sacra via. This market is
not mentioned after the beginning of the empire, and its business was
probably transferred to the other macella. In any case it must have
been removed to make room for the later imperial fora (Jord. i. 1.432-436).
Macellum Liviae : * a market on the Esquiline in Region V (Not. Cur.),
built by Augustus and named after his wife, if it is to be identified, as
is probable, with το τεμενίσμα το Δίουιον ωνομασμενον, which Tiberius
dedicated at the beginning of 7 b.c. (Cass. Dio lv. 8). A restoration
between 364 and 378 by Valentinian, Valens and Gratian is recorded
(CIL vi. 1178), and either this macellum or the Macellum Magnum (q.v.)
is marked on a fragment (4) of the Marble Plan (Atti del Congresso
storico 1907, i. 121). In the Chronicle of Benedict of Soracte ad ann. 921
(MGS iii. 715) the aecclesia Sancti Eusebii iuxta macellum parvum
is mentioned (HCh 251). In the Liber Pontificalis the church of S. Maria
Maggiore was described as iuxta macellum Libiae (LP xxxvii. 8 ; xlvi. 3 ;
HCh 342), that of S. Vito as in macello (Arm. 811 ; HCh 499), and in the
Ordo Benedicti1 (p. 141= Jord. ii. 665) is written : intrans sub arcum
(i.e. Gallieni) ubi dicitur macellum Livianum. Corresponding with these
1 Lib. Cens. Fabre-Duchesne, ii. 153.