Penrose, Francis
An investigation of the principles of Athenian architecture: or the results of a recent survey conducted chiefly with reference to the optical refinements exhibited in the construction of the ancient buildings at Athens — London [u.a.], 1888

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ABACUS, varieties in thickness of, in the Parthenon,
15 ; in the breadth of, 15 ; in the Theseum,
73 ; peculiarity of, in the Propyla;a, 71 ;
Olympieum, 76, 85 ; earlier Parthenon, 99 ; see

Acropolis, Athenian, description of, 1 ; approaches
to, 60 ; original entrance to, 63 ; western out-
works of, 64.

Acroteria, Parthenon, 37, 46 ; Propykea, 61.

Adhesion between some of the joints and beds in
the stones of the Parthenon, 24, 29 note 3.

/Egina, sec Temple, App. n.

Aglauros, grotto of, 7.

Agora, gate of, at Athens, 28 note 1.

Alterations in design during the progress of the
works of the Parthenon, 12, 16 notes 3 and 5,
49; to the Erechtheum when converted into a
church, 91, 94.

Ancones, 25, see Projections.

Angle intercolumniations, 72 ; of earlier Parthenon,
App. ii. Art. 2 ; theory of, App. I. Art. 1, p. El6.

-------of roof, construction of, 46.

Antae, rule for breadth of, 12 note 3 ; forward in-
clination of, in Parthenon, 38, 106; forward
inclination of, in Propykea, 69 ; object explained,
106 ; see In amis.

Ants capital; mouldingsof, in Parthenon, 53 ; colour-
ing of, Parthenon, 56 ; mouldings and colouring
of, Propyliea, 59; mouldings of, Theseum, 53.

Apollonius PergseuSj his complete knowledge of the
geometry of the Conic Sections, App. m. Art. 8.

Apophyge or Apophysis of columns, 40, 53.

Archaic capitals, due to the earlier Parthenon, 6.

-------■ sculptures, found on the Acropolis, 5.

Architrave, length of, in Parthenon, 17; scientific
construction of, in Propykea, 71.

Arrephori, house of, see Erechtheum.

Athens, kings of, supposed site of their palace on
the Acropolis, 7.

Augustus, supposed appearance of Athens in the
time of, preface; continuation of the building
of the Olympieum by, 76.

-------and Rome, Temple of, 6.

Bass^e, see Temple.

Breadth, the appearance of, affected by different

degrees of illumination, 107.
Bronze casing of doors, Parthenon, 46 ; Propykea,

Bronze measures, Roman, App. v. Art 18.
Biunelleschi, his moderation in the use of the entasis,

39 note 3.

Capitals, inclination of the axis of the, 36 note 3.
------- Doric, turned in lathes, 26, 48 note r; supposed

origin of stria or neck groove, 26 ; diminution

in spread of, in later examples, 16, 28 note 1 ;

form of outline, 49 ; see Antae capital.

------■ Archaic, Doric, 6 ; Ionic, 5.

Caryatid portico, Erechtheum, construction of, 89 ;

not the original south portico, 90.
Cave, of Pan, 1 ; footpath to Acropolis near, 65 ; at

east end of Acropolis, 2.
Cecropiurn : name given in this work to an ancient

temple on the Acropolis, its site, g ; its archi-
tecture supposed to have been Ionic, 5 ; pro-
bably superseded by the earlier Parthenon and
taken down before the Persian invasion, 101 ;
Dr. Dorpfeld's theory on the subject of this
temple, 6.

Ceiling: of Parthenon, plan of, 14, 45; coffers
of, 45 ; of Propylsea, extent of bearing and
magnificence of, 62; colouring of, 58; coffers
of, 59 ; of Theseum, perfect state of, 72 ; Olym-
pieum, 85 ; Erechtheum north portico, tig.

Chalcotheke, or magazine of bronzes, 7.

Chambers, unfinished, of Propylsa, 69.

Chiaro-oscuro, effects of, produced by the want of
parallelism in the several buildings of the
Acropolis, 4 ; also arising from the various
inclinations of the different planes, 38 ; inequali-
ties of effect upon the judgment, 103, as in-
ducing the necessity of entasis, 107.

Chords, parallel, use of the method of bisection of,
Si note 3, and App, in. Art. 5.

Church, conversion into, of Parthenon, 10, 19, 20 ;
of Erechtheum, 91, 93; on site of Olympieum,
75 note 3.

Churches, preservation of the Athenian temples by
their conversion into, 74.

Cicero, quotation from, respecting the inclination of
the columns of the Temple of Castor at Syracuse,
3S note 2.

Cimonium, or south wall of Acropolis, built by
Cimon the son of Miltiades, description of, 2 ;
fragments of sculpture built into casing of, 2 ;
architectural fragments in, 2, 6, 102.

Colour : remains of, and moderate use of, on the ar-
chaic statues, 5 ; on the earlier Parthenon, 98 ;
on a fragment of an ancient Doric cornice, 7.

Colouring: of the Parthenon, 55; of the Propyla/a,
interior, 5S, 62 ; exterior, 70.

Columns : discarded drums of, belonging to Par-
thenon, 3 ; drums of, belonging to earlier Par-
thenon, 6, 99 ; unfinished marble drums inserted
in Acropolis wall, see also Pelasgicum, 99 ;
difference of diameter of, in the Pronaos and
Posticum of the Parthenon, 12 ; plan of, traced
on the pavement, 9, 25 ; on the theory of
the diminution and entasis of, when single, 107
note 3 ; different heights of, in the same front, Par.
thenon, 1 5 ; Propykea, 61 ; variety in height of,
in east and west fronts of Propyla^a, 62 ;
number of in the Olympieum, 77 ; in the
earlier Parthenon, 101 ; capitals of, see capitals ;
entasis of, see entasis ; flutes of, see flutes; in-
clination of, see inclination.

Columniation, or distance from centre to centre in a
row of columns, difference of, in front and flank
of earlier Parthenon, 6, 99 ; at Corinth, 6 note
3 ; spacing of, theoretical, App. 1. Art. 1, p. 113.

Comparison of the entasis of the Parthenon with a
theoretical curve, 42 ; the same of various
mouldings, 50 ; of the columns of the Parthenon
with those of the Propytaa, 43; of the archi-
tecture generally, 53, 62, 70, 104.

Conchoid of Nicomedes described, App. IN. Art. 3 ;
proposed by Vignola for forming the entasis of
2 K

columns, App. in. Art 3 ; referred to, 41, 49
note I.

Concussion by earthquakes or explosions, effect of,
on the Parthenon, 22 note 1, 28 note 6.

Conic Sections (also called curves of the second
order) described, App. in. Art. 4-8 ; the names
of the three varieties, Art. 4-8 ; the properties
common to all the varieties, Art 5 ; their
differences, Art. 7 ; their etymology. Art 7 ; the
invention of these curves incorrectly ascribed to
Menechmes a friend of Plato, see Menechmes ;
known to the builders of the Parthenon and prob-
ably earlier, 40 note 1 ; the probable manner of
the invention and practical application of, App.
HI. Art 11; complete investigation of, by Apollo-
nius Perga^us, App. in. Art. 8; the probable
methods of constructing and using, by the Greeks,
48 note 3 ; determination by the Greeks of the
centre of a given conic section, 49 ; see Ellipse,
Parabola, Hyperbola, and Curvature, circle of.

Corrections, optical, see Optical.

Curvature, horizontal, discovery of, in Parthenon
by Mr. Pennethorne, 22 note I, 23; mention
of, by Vitruvius, 22 ; not perceptible from
ordinary points of view and accidental instance
of, in the west front of St. Paul's Cathedral,
London, 24 note 1 ; another accidental instance
in the north wing of the Propykea, 28 note 6 ;
table of examples of, 27 ; not found in very small
structures, 27 ; always greater in the front than
on the flank of a temple, 27, 105; found
only in the entablature of the Propykea, 27, 104 ;
found on the fronts only at the Temple of
Neptune at Pactum, and at Corinth, 28, 104 ;
at Sunium, 28 ; not found at ./Egina, Bassa?, or
Rhamnus, 28 ; has not arisen from settlement, in
the majority of Greek temples, 28 ; of the
Parthenon, east front, 29 ; regularity of that of
east front and of north side, 31; methods
proposed for setting out the curve, 31 ; of the
west front of the Parthenon, 31 ; its irregulari-
ties accounted for, 31 ; greater amount of, in
the new than in the earlier Parthenon, the way
in which this result was produced, 31 ; of the
south side, 32 ; of the interior and its object
considered, 33, 34.

------- of the Theseum, the irregularities ac-
counted for, 73 ; of the raking lines of the
pediment, 73, 105; of the horizontal lines of
the Olympieum, 27 ; on the origin of, in the
fronts of a temple, 104; derived from the in-
fluence of the pediment, 104 ; greater develop-
ment of, in stylobate than in entablature, 73 ;
explanation, 105 note 4; rule for determining
the amount of, App. VI. Art 19.

■------- of the various Athenian mouldings; of

the echinus ; of the entasis ; and of the soffits
of the pediment; see Echinus, Entasis, Soffit.

------- circle of (the same as the osculating circle),

defined, App. in. Art 8; radius of, a rule
for determining in the case of the Conic Sections
seems to have been known in the time of
Pericles, certainly known to Apollonius Per-
gaeus, App. in. Art, 8 ; radius of, in the entasis of
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