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Petrie, William M. Flinders; Mackay, Ernest J.
Heliopolis, Kafr Ammar and Shurafa — London, 1915

DOI Page / Citation link: 
https://doi.org/10.11588/diglit.519#0029
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HEAD-RESTS

that name. This type is a very simple one, and
occurs in graves containing both contracted and
straight burials. Six examples were found in the
Tarkhan cemetery in box and coffin burials, the shafts
of the burial chambers being rectangular in form in
each case (graves 241, 536, 548, 553, 554 and $56).

Type 2 (fig. 1). This type is a variety of the
above, and but one example has been discovered
(grave 632). It was found associated with a box-
burial containing a contracted body, the shaft leading
to the burial chamber being in this case nearly square.
It is practically the same type as the block head-rests,
except that its middle portion has been roughly cut
into eight pillars. It seems that no examples have
been found in other cemeteries, and its date can,
therefore, only be judged to be the vth dynasty from
the style of burial in which it was found.

Type 3 (figs. 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9). Six examples were
found in the Tarkhan cemetery associated with various
types of burial (graves 207, 208, 236, 479, 506 and
507). It is a form very difficult to date, as there
are no examples mentioned in any publication, with
the exception of one of a similar type discovered in
a small cemetery at Zowieh (Gizeh and Rifeh,
pi. xxii). The Zowieh example is dated to the
vith dynasty as a string of amulets was found in the
same cemetery. The pottery found in the cemetery
was, however, similar to the pottery found at
Dcshasheh, and this type of head-rest may, therefore,
belong to the late vth or early vith dynasty. These
are always cut from naturally branched wood.

TYPE 4 (fig. 10). Only one grave, no. 226, con-
tained this type of head-rest, and the latter bears the
name and titles of the man for whom it was made
inscribed upon it in black ink. The name is SlIEPSES,
a common one in the vth dynasty. A similar type
of head-rest is figured on pi. xxxiv of Deshasheh, and
there also is dated to the vth dynasty.

Type 7 (figs. 17,19, 20, 21,22, 24, 25). By far the
greatest number of head-rests found are of this type.
Two varieties are known, one in which the head-rest
is made of two pieces, either the headpiece or the
base being one with the stem, whilst in the other the
head-rest is made up of three pieces. The better
made head-rests of this type (figs. 19, 20 and 2i) seem
to be associated with square shafts (graves 233 and
505), or rectangular (grave 482). This latter grave,
however, did not possess a burial chamber, and the
shaft had necessarily, therefore, to be of a rectangular
shape in order to accommodate the wooden coffin.
The small square shaft was in common use in Egypt

during the ivth and vth dynasties, but after that date
it gradually lengthens out into rectangular form.
Failing direct evidence, therefore, and on the above
grounds alone, it seems permissible to date the finely
made head-rests of this type to the ivth or vth
dynasty. The head-rest shown in fig. 22 (grave 209),
which is somewhat roughly made, is difficult to date.
As, however, it was found close by the head of an
uncontractcd burial, which was placed in a chamber
with a rectangular shaft, it might well be placed at
the close of the vth or the beginning of the vith
dynasty. We are, however, on more certain ground
in the case of the head-rest fig. 25 (grave 509), for it
is definitely dated by pottery at the xith dynasty.
Head-rests of this date, of which numbers were found
in the Tarkhan cemetery, are generally badly made
and of clumsy shape as compared with earlier
examples, and are not included in the table.

Type 8 (figs. 23, 26). Two head-rests of this
type were found in the Tarkhan cemetery in graves
234 and 526. In both instances they were found in
box coffins containing partially contracted burials.
The coffin of grave 234 was placed in a rectangular
hole about 25 inches deep, with a piece of pottery just
north of the coffin and another piece under the pelvis.
See Tarkhan 1, pi. xxvii, 234, for this grave showing
the head-rest in position. Grave 526, also, had one
jar outside and to the north of the coffin, which
occupied a recess cut at the west of a shaft measuring
77 x 43 inches. The pottery found in both graves
is similar to the xth and xith dynasty forms in Gizeh
and Rifeh, The two head-rests figs. 23, 26, must,
therefore, be of that period.

37. All the types of head-rest in the Tarkhan
cemetery were found in graves occupied by either
sex. Thirty-two were placed with the bodies of males,
eighteen with females. 1 n four graves (nos. 532,
537A. SSSand 570) a brick or stone was placed in lieu
of a head-rest, either beneath or close by the head.
This use of a substitute has also been met with in the
small iiird dynasty cemetery at Meydum.

In the majority of cases the head-rests were not
made only for burial purposes, for they nearly all
show signs of much wear. There was, however,
definite proof in one case (grave 218) that the rest
was newly supplied for the purpose of the burial, as
it was of a very flimsy make and painted a dull yellow,
the same colour as the coffin.

In rare cases in the early burials the head-rests
were found in position just beneath the base of the
skull, but as a rule they lay on their sides beneath or
 
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