Cook, Arthur B.
Zeus: a study in ancient religion (Band 1): Zeus god of the bright sky — Cambridge, 1914

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Zeus and Argos


Anaxagoras told the same tale1, and others followed suit2, so that
the lion came to be called the offspring of the Moon3. These
references certainly lead us to suppose that from the time of
Epimenides, that is to say from about 625 B.C.4, the Argive Hera
was closely connected, if not identified, with the Moon. More
than that it would be unsafe to maintain.

ix. Zeus and Argos.

It may next be shown that, what Io was to Hera, Argos was
to Zeus.

The ancient systematisers of mythology recognized a variety of
Dionysoi. One of these is described by Diodoros as having been
the son of Zeus by Io, as having reigned over Egypt, and as having
discovered the mysteries5. Now in the Dionysiac mysteries, as
celebrated in Asia Minor, Crete, Thebes, etc., certain priests were
termed boukoloi or 'cow-herds,' presumably because they tended
their god conceived as in bovine form or ministered to the wor-
shippers who adopted his animal name6. The important inscription,
which has preserved for us the regulations of the iobakchoi, an
Athenian sect worshipping the Dionysiac divinity Iobakchos'1',

1 Anaxag. ap. schol. Ap. Rhod. 1. 498.

2 Herodor. frag. 9 [Frag. hist. Gr. ii. 30 Miiller) ap. Tatian. ap. lust. Mart. p. 267,
Plout. de facie in orbe lunae 24, Steph. Byz. s.v. 'Airecras, Nigidius ap. schol. Caes. Germ.
Aratea p. 393, 20 ff. Eyssenhardt.

3 Euphorion frag. 47 Meineke ap. Plout. symp. 5.3. 3 M 77^77$ rraida xdpufa, interp.
Serv. in Verg. Aen. 8. 295 Lunae Alius et invulnerabilis dictus est, cp. Sen. Here. fur.
83 sublimis alias Luna concipiat feras, Lact. Plac. in Stat. Theb. 2. 58 leonem de his
polis ortum etc. According to Demodokos ap. Plout. de fluv. 18. 4 Mt Apaisanton (in
Argolis) used to be called Mt Selenaion. For Hera, wishing to punish Herakles, got
Selene to help her. Selene, using magic spells, filled a basket with foam, out of which a
huge lion was born. Iris bound him with her own girdles and brought him down to
Mt Opheltion. He tore and slew a shepherd of the district named Apaisantos. Hence
Providence ordained that the place should be called Apaisantos after his victim.

4 H. Demoulin E-pimhiide de Crete Bruxelles 1901 p. 136.

5 Diod. 3. 74. In Cic. de nat. deor. 3. 58 (Dionysum) quartum love et Luna, cui sacra
Orphica putantur confici we should perhaps read Semela for Luna and, with Moser ad loc,
suppose a confusion between Semele and Selene: cp. Lyd. de mens. 4. 51 p. 107, 10 f.
Wiinsch (Aibvvcros) rerapros 6 Atds kixI Se^Ai?? k.t.X., Ampel. 9. 11 (Liber) quartus ex
Saturnio et Semela. In Euseb.praep. ev. 3. 13. 18 t'ls yap r/ tovtov (sc. Alovvvov) yevv-qaaaa,
ei're 'ZeXrjvrj tis XeyotTo et're TLepae^burj ; G. Dindorf prints 2ejxeXr], the emendation of
Cuperus Numism. p. 255, but Lobeck Aglaophamus ii. 1133 defends ^eX-qvr], comparing
Ulpian. in Mid. p. 174 Zvioi iraida 'ZeX-fivrjs top Aiovvaov. Plout. de Is. et Osir. 37 cites
a letter of Alexarchos iv rj Atos icrTopeiTai. Kai"I<ridos vibs o>V 6 Aibvvcros k.t.X.

6 Supra p. 44 r f.

7 Hesych. s.v. 'I6/3aKXos- 6 Aiovvaos, airb rrjs /3aK%etas, Maximus wepl Kctrapx^" 496
<rcpaXX6[xevoL 8cbpoi<ji xopoifiaveos 'Io[3aKxov. That the l6f3aKxoi acted the part of 'I6(3<xkxos,
appears probable from AntA. Plan. 4. 289. 1 ff. avrov bpav ,16{3<xk.x01' eSb^afj.ev, TjviKa
k.t.X—cpev deir]s dvdpbs VTroKpiairjs.
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