together at least in one remarkable tradition1. When Artemis
came to be regarded as a moon-goddess2, the way was open for
Diktynna on the one hand3, Britomartis on the other4, to be identi-
fied with the moon5. But it must be observed that this identifica-
tion was not made till Roman times ; and even then no hint is
dropped that the consort of Diktynna or Britomartis was solar. It
is, therefore, highly precarious to quote the myth of Minos and
Britomartis or Diktynna as a case of sun-and-moon marriage.
xix. Zeus and the Bovine Figures of Cretan Mythology.
In the last section we considered the myth of Pasiphae at
Knossos and the myth of Europe at Gortyna. Both were found
to involve the agency of a great fertilising bull. But here their
resemblance ended; for, whereas the story of the bull and Pasiphae
pointed to the annual celebration of a sun-and-moon marriage at
Knossos, the story of the bull and Europe pointed rather to the
annual celebration of a sky-and-earth marriage at Gortyna. It
remains to ask what was the relation of Zeus to the bovine figures
of both myths.
The Cnossian myth dealt with a solar bull, a lunar cow, and
their offspring the semi-bovine Minotaur, whose astral character
was indicated by his name Asterios or Asterzon. We have here
evidence of a religious complex, forming an independent whole and
apparently of great antiquity. Aegean place-names suggest that
this cult of sun, moon, and stars was not confined to Crete, but
extended to other islands6. Its connexion with Zeus, however, is
1 Neanthes of Kyzikos frag. 23 [Frag. hist. Gr. hi. 8 Miiller) ap. Favorin. lex. p. 391,
7 ff. and et. mag. p. 214, 26 ff. Heavdrjs ev Trp&Tu? llepl TeXerQv <pr)cn xP7lalX0V Att
doBrjuai, otl 6 e/c tt}s /m.rjTpas ttjs 'E/cctT^s yevqabjxevos fxeTacrrrjcreL rrjs /3a<rt\etas avrov '
yevvtbarjs 5e rrjs 'E/cd/n/s, ras cvpurapovaas Kopas rrj \€%oi avafiorjaai j3piroi', tout' 'iariv
dyadov • irapa tovto 5e iivLcpdeyfxa wvofxacrdca tt\v debv. Zeus is here apparently the
father of Britomartis by Hekate.
2 Farnell Cults of Gk. States ii. 457—461, K. Wernicke in Pauly—Wissowa Real-Enc.
ii. 1354, Gruppe Gr. Myth. Rel. p. 1297 n. 2.
3 Cornut. theol.. 34 p. 71,, 5 ff. Lang r/ 5' "Apre/ms (pwacpopos fxkv iwuvo^dadrj <5i<x to
/ecu aiiTT) a£\as ^dWeLV /cat (purlfeiv iroaCos to wepiexov, birorav /xdXLara irapaeXrjvos y,
b"ucTvvva 5' cbrd rod fi&Weiv rets ct/criVas—Sik€lv ydp to fl&Weiv—k.t.X., Verg. Ciris 305
Dictynnam dixere tuo (sc. o Britomarti) de nomine lunam, Paul, ex Fest. p. 72 Miiller
Dictynna Diana, quam esse lunam putabant, dicta, quod fulgore suo noctu omnia ostendat
(cp. H. Usener in the Rhein. Mus. 1868 xxiii. 342 and in his Gbtternamen Bonn 1896
4 Verg. Ciris 305 cited supra n. 3.
5 W. H. Roscher Uber Selene und Verwandtes Leipzig 1890 p. 116 ff.
*' (1) Hesych. 'Ao-repi'?? • 77 KprjTT] /cat i] ArjXos ovtcos ZkoXovvto. (2) Asteria as a
former name of Delos (Pauly—Wissowa Real-Enc. ii. 1780 f. : add schol. Ap. Rhod. 1.