Cook, Arthur B.
Zeus: a study in ancient religion (Band 1): Zeus god of the bright sky — Cambridge, 1914

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Hera and Io

453

offence Hera1 sent upon them the delusion that they were cows :
they dashed off into the woods and even bellowed aloud2, till
Melampous cured them and married one of them, receiving along
with her part of king Proitos' domains3.

Here, then, is a further trace of the attendants or priestesses of
the Argive Hera being called 'cows.' In 1894 I ventured on the
general statement that within the bounds of Hellenic mythology
animal-metamorphosis commonly points to a preceding animal-
cult4. I am now disposed to add the surmise that in some cases
at least, those of Io and the Proitides among them, animal-meta-
morphosis implies an animal-priesthood, in which the priest or
priestess is supposed to be the animal specially connected with his
or her divinity5.

viii. Hera and Io.

It is usually assumed without any attempt at proof that Io was
a hypostasis or by-form of Hera6. This somewhat vague and
shadowy conception may pass muster, if by it we mean that the
priestess of Hera was originally regarded as Hera incarnate. Io
Kallithyessa, to give her the full title recorded by Hesychios7,
of which sundry variants are extant elsewhere8, is consistently

1 Lact. Plac. in Stat. Theb. 2. 220 says: furore immisso a Venere.

2 Cp. Bakchyl. 10. 56 a/j.ep8aXeav (pwvdv ieiaai.

3 Serv. in Verg. eel. 6. 48, Lact. Plac. in Stat. Theb. 2. 220, 3. 453, Myth. Vat. 1.
85, 2. 68. Lact. Plac. in Stat. Theb. 3. 453 speaks of actual metamorphosis: Iuno in
iuvencas vertit puellas.

4 Jonm. Hell. Stud. 1894 xiv. 160.

5 P. Friedlander Argolica Berlin 1905 p. 36 has already conjectured that Tirynthian
girls were the /36es of Hera just as Athenian girls were the apuroi of Artemis.

6 So Miss J. E. Harrison in the Class. Rev. 1893 vii. 76, Farnell Cults of Gk. States
i. 182, 200, K. Wernicke in Pauly—Wissowa Real-Enc. ii. 797, E. E. Sikes on Aisch.
P.v. 561, Gruppe Gr. Myth. Rel. pp. 183,460, 466, 469, 505 n. 2, 1127, 1325 n. 4.

7 Hesych. s.v. 'Iw KaXXidveaaa- KaXXidveaaa eKaXeiTo 17 irpcbTtj iepeta tt)s ' AO-qvds.
J. Scaliger's correction of the last word to ' Upas (ii> "Apyei "Upas Knaack) has won
universal acceptance, cp. Aisch. suppl. 291 f., Apollod. 2. r. 3, anon, de incredib. 15
p. 324 Westermann.

8 KaXXi96r) {Phoronis frag. 4 Kinkel ap. Clem. Al. strom. r, 164. 2 p. 102,23 ff. Stahlin
KaXXidorj KXeidovxos 'OXv/unriddos /3aaiXeiT]s, | "Uprjs 'Apyeirjs, rj crrefxixaai /ecu dvcrdvoicrt. j
irpdoTf] iKoap-rjae <v > irepi Kiova p.aKpbv dvd(t(TT]s, cp. Hyg. fab. 145 Callirhoe for which
Knaack cj. Call/'thoe), KaAAtfliuci (Plout. ap. Eus. praep. ev. 3. 8. 1 Xtyerai Se Ueipas 6
itpCoTos 'Ap7o\t5os"Hpas iepbv eicrdp.€vos ttjv eavrou dvyarepa KaXXidviav lepeiav Karaarrjcras,
€k tQiv irepi HLpvvda devdpwu oyx^V TtfJ-wv evureavov (so the MSS. : evuearov cj. Kaibel)
"Hpas dyaXp.a ixopcpGxrai k.t.X., with which cp. Pans. 2. 17. 5 irapa 8e avTrjv €<xtlv ewi
k'lovos cryaAjua "Upas apxaiov. to 5e apxttioTaTov iretroiTjTaL p.ev e'£ dxpddos, dveredrj 5e
es Tipvvda viro Yieipdaov rod" Apyov, Tipvuda 3e dveXovres ' Apyetoi KOfxi^ovcnv is to'Hpaiov •
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