would probably have called the men keratesseis or keraelkeh1. They
are in any case the successors of the ' Minoan' bull-grapplers.
I end with an amusing, if not instructive, example of type-
fusion. A red-figured vase at Saint Petersburg (fig. 369)2 shows
not only Europe on the bull escorted by two Erotes, but also three
kouroi—perhaps we should say konretes,—who with unmistakeable
gestures beckon her on towards their home in Crete.
xvii. Ritual Horns.
Sir Arthur Evans in his pioneer-work (1901) on the ' Mycenaean
Tree and Pillar Cult3' was the first to discuss comprehensively
the ritual horns, which in ' Minoan' cult-scenes are set in various
positions of importance—at the foot of a sacred tree, on the top of
an altar, as the socket of a double axe, at the base of a column,
along a precinct-wall, etc. He regarded them as ' a more or less
1 Hesych. Kepareaaecs- oi tovs ravpovs eXKovres airb t&v Keparwv. KaXovvrat. 8e /cat
KepaeXKels. Cp. //. 20. 403 f. ws ore ravpos | ypvyev eXKO/nevos 'FiXik&viov a/xtpl dvaKra, j
Kotipwv eXubvTbiv • yavvTai 54 re rots tvoc'ixQwv.
2 Stephani Vasensamml. St. Petersburg i. 385 f. no. 884 and in the Compte-rendic
St. Pit. 1866 p. 149 ff- Atlas pi. 5, 4f., Reinach Rip. Vases i. 24, 1 f. The bull is here
painted white, like the flesh of Europe. For a Dionysiac variation of the scene see
Reinach Vases Ant. p. 50 pi. 12.
3 A. J. Evans in the Journ. Hell. Stud. 1901 xxi. 135 ff.