Cook, Arthur B.
Zeus: a study in ancient religion (Band 1): Zeus god of the bright sky — Cambridge, 1914

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556 The Bull and the Sun in Syria

Thevet in 1550; by Pococke in 1739-40; by Maundrell in 1745;
by Wood and Dawkins in 1751; by Volney in 1785; and by many
subsequent travellers, including the Duke of Ragusa, in 18341.'
Nevertheless, despite the good work done by these explorers2,
several problems still awaited solution. Fortunately a visit of the
German emperor and empress on Nov. 1, 1898, led to a further and
in many respects final exploration of the site (1900-1904) by
O. Puchstein and a band of able associates. The results obtained
by them3 may be here summarised.

The Propylaion^ in accordance with an ancient oriental scheme
consisted of two towers united by a colonnade, and was approached
by a broad flight of steps. The steps have disappeared; but much
of the two-storeyed towers and at least the bases of the twelve
columns remain, three of these bearing Latin inscriptions, which
tell how Longinus, a life-guard of the first Parthian legion, and
Septimius, an imperial freedman, in gratitude for the safety of
Caracalla adorned their capitals with a sheathing of gilded

Immediately behind the Propylaion lies a hexagonal court, once
surrounded by columns, of which scanty traces are left6. The

1 W. B. Donne in Smith Diet. Geogr. i. 1037.

2 See especially R. Pococke A description of the East, and some other countries
London 1743 ii. 106—113, R. Wood The ruins of Balbec, otherwise Heliopolis in
Coelosyria London 1757 with 46 pis., C. F. Volney Travels through Syria and Egypt, in
the years 1783, 1784, and 1785 (English ed.) London 1787 ii. 232—248 with a plan and
view, L. F. Cassas Voyage pittoresque de la Syrie, de la Phoenicie, de la Palestine, et de
la basse Aegypte Paris 1799 (an 7) ii pis. 1, 3, 4, r5, 16, 17, 27, 28, 29, 30, 34, 47, 54, 56,
57, H. Frauberger Die Akropolis von Baalbek Frankfurt a. M. 1892 with ro figs.,
20 photographic pis., a plan, and a restoration.

3 O. Puchstein in the /ahrb. d. kais. deutsch. arch. Inst. 1901 xvi. 133—160 with
figs. 1—9 and pis. 4—7, id. ib. 1902 xvii. 87—124 with 3 figs, and pis. 4—9, id. Fiihrer
durch die Ruinen von Ba'albek Berlin 1905 pp. 1—40 with figs. 1—12, id. Guide de
Ba'albek Berlin 1906 with figs, and plans, O. Puchstein & T. von Liipke Ba'albek: 30
Ansichten der deutschen Ausgrabungen Berlin 1910.

4 O. Puchstein in the Jahrb. d. kais. deutsch. arch. Inst. 1902 xvii. 88 f., id. Fiihrer
durch die Ruinen von Ba'albek Berlin 1905 p. 8 ff., O. Puchstein & T. von Liipke Ba'albek
Berlin 1910 pis. 3, 4, 5.

5 Corp. inscr. Eat. iii no. 138 = Dessau Inscr. LaL sel. no. 4283 [I. o.] m. diis
Heliupol. pro sal. | [et] victoriis d. n. Antonini Pii fel. Aug. et Iuliae Aug. matris d. n.
cast, senat. patr., Aur. Ant. Longinus specul. leg. i j [Antjoninianae capita columnarum
dua aerea auro inluminata sua pecunia ex voto 1. a. s. On these two inscriptions see
O. Puchstein in the Jahrb. d. kais. deutsch. arch. Inst. 1901 xvi. 154 n. 11. Id. ib. 1902
xvii. 89 publishes the third inscription : [I. o.] m. pro sal[ute] d. [n.] imp. Antonin[i Pii

Felicis....] | [____Sep]timi[us. .]bas Aug. lib. caput columnae aeneum auro inl[uminat]um

votum sua pecunia 1. [a. s.].

6 O. Puchstein in the Jahrb. d. kais. deutsch. arch. Inst. 1901 xvi. 139 f., id. Fiihrer
durch die Ruinen von Ba'albek Berlin 1905 p. 11 ff., O. Puchstein & T. von-Liipke
Balalbek Berlin 1910 pis. 6, 7.
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