Cook, Arthur B.
Zeus: a study in ancient religion (Band 1): Zeus god of the bright sky — Cambridge, 1914

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0.5
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558 The Bull and the Sun in Syria

original intention of this court1 is not known. Certain Helio-
politan coins struck by Philippus Senior and his wife Otacilia
(figs. 4202, 421 3, 4224) have been thought to represent a cypress-
tree seen through the central gate-way of the Propylaion5. If that
were so, we might reasonably conjecture that the hexagonal court
enclosed a sacred cypress-tree or cypress-grove. But the best-
preserved specimens of these coins fully confirm the view6

Fig. 420. Fig. 421. Fig. 422.

advocated by Monsieur R. Dussaud7 that we have here a corn-ear
(cp. infra fig. 427) rather than a cypress-tree. The god within held

1 It was, perhaps in the fourth century A.D., transformed into a Christian church and
roofed over for the purpose, its walls being then first pierced with windows (O. Puchstein
Fiihrer durch die Ruinen von Ba'albek Berlin 1905 p. 12).

2 Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins Galatia, etc. pp. lxxvii, 292 pi. 36, 6 Philippus Senior, with
legend COLIVLAVGFE | IO MH | COL HEL, Coloniae Iuliae Augustae Felicis
(Iovi Optimo Maximo Heliopolitand) Coloniae Heliopoleos. Ib. p. 293 Otacilia, with
the same legend. Cp. F. De Saulcy Numismatique de la terre sainte Paris 1874 pp. 12 f.,
403 Philippus Senior, 14 Otacilia.

3 F. De Saulcy op. cit. p. 12 f. pi. 1, 5 Philippus Senior, with legend COLHEL | IO
MH. Ib. p. 14 Otacilia, with the same legend.

4 F. Lajard Recherches sur le culte du cypres pyramidal Paris 1854 pp. 97 ff., 360
pi. 6, 5 Philippus Senior (Paris), with legend COLHEL | IO MH. Cp. Hunter Cat.
Coins iii. 221 no. 6 Philippus Senior.

5 The tree is described as a cypress by Rasche Lex. Num. iv. 93, Suppl. ii. 1344 f.,
Eckhel Doctr. num. vet.2 iii. 335, F. Lajard op. cit. p. 97 ff., F. De Saulcy op. cit.
pp. 12 ff., 403. Mionnet Descr. de med. ant. v. 302 no. 123 wrongly took it to be
a cedar. A cypress is the central object on other coppers of Heliopolis, which show two
naked athletes seated on rocks and supporting an agonistic urn above it (F. Lajard
op. cit. p. 100 Valerian, Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins Galatia, etc. p. 295 pi. 36, 12
Gallienus).

Cypress-trees are not often associated with Zeus. But the temple of Zeus Ne'meios at
Nemea stood in a cypress-grove (Paus. 2. 15. 2) and the shrines used by the mystics of
Zeus Idaios in Crete were roofed with cypress-wood (Eur. Cretes frag. 472 Nauck2): cp.
the coin of Ephesos {supra p. 134 fig. 100) and Hermippos frag. 24 [Frag. hist. Gr. iii.
42 Muller) ap. Diog. Laert. 8. 10 airelxovro 8e (sc. oi Ilvdayopeioi) /ecu cropov KVTrapLcraiprjs
5td to rod Aids OKr\ivTpov evTevdev TreiroiTjcrdai, Iambi, v. Pyth. 155 KvirapLcrcriv^v 8e ixrj 8eiv
KOLTatTKeva^eadai crupdv (leg. cropov) virayopevei 5ia to nviraplcrcnvov yeyovevcu to rod Atos
cncrjTTTpov 7) 6V dWov tlvcX /hvcttlkov \6yov.

6 T. L. Donaldson Architectura numismatica London 1859 P- I23 nS- 34* •

7 R. Dussaud Notes de mythologie syrienne Paris 1905 p. 92 ff.
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